Archive for the ‘childbirth education’ Category

Childbirth Education Myths 3

Tuesday, February 18th, 2014

books-150x150To read the whole series, begin with Childbirth Education Myths 1.

MYTH #3: “The hospital class will be good enough.”
One of the best ways to be prepared for birth is to learn about birth. What happens in the normal, physiologic process? How do interventions (medical or non-medical) affect that process? What is the difference between the medical model and the midwifery model? Under what circumstances will each model benefit you? These are topics a hospital class will likely not tackle.

1) Limited information.
Hospitals often teach what is available at their facility. This makes sense, because hospitals are in the business of selling medicine. Their maternity department offers the medical model of care, and hospital childbirth classes reflect that. Their instructors are employed by the hospital, and the hospital has direct control over their curriculum.

The class offered at a hospital is more likely to focus on when to get to the hospital, what to do if your water breaks, protocols for epidural placement, and what to expect in a cesarean. They may cover logistics like where you go to get admitted, what happens there, and where you get moved around to. They will make sure that you are familiar with the routine protocols and procedures, which can be beneficial if you are planning to birth there.

They may or may not offer much information on non-medical pain management, the physiology of birth, doulas, or birth plans, as these are not things normally offered in hospitals.

2) Alternatives to the medical model are not offered.
Generally speaking, hospitals do not employ care providers like chiropractors, naturopaths, independent midwives, or other more holistic-minded care providers. If they do, they may not think to refer you for care from any of these areas, as they are not part of the medical model of care for birth. To learn about non-medical options, a local independent childbirth educator is going to be a wealth of resources and information for you.

3) Informed Choice vs. Informed Consent
Many hospital classes cater to the majority, who are anticipating the status quo American birth: Start labor, get epidural, have baby. While there is nothing wrong with a woman choosing that model, many hospitals operate under the assumption that this is the only model that interests women. Thus, they spend more time preparing moms for what to expect at the hospital than they do preparing them to cope with labor in whatever way seems right to her. If a mother wants something outside that model, a hospital class may not be the best fit for her, and she may feel as though she is sitting in a “How To Be Good Patient Class,” rather than a comprehensive, evidence-based, balanced childbirth class.

4) Availability of Instructor
Independent childbirth educators are often available by phone and email between classes, to help with homework, provide resources and referrals, and to answer questions. Hospital instructors may not have such ready availability. Their class sizes are usually much larger, so their ability to give one-on-one attention or instruction may be severely limited.

Questions to Ask Childbirth Educators:

  • What curriculum do you use, and what is it based on?
  • How much experience do you personally have in this hospital attending births? Do you have any experience working with the independent midwives in town to offer a balance in models of care?
  • Is this class going to teach in-depth about the physiological birth process?
  • How much time is devoted to labor coping techniques?
  • Are you a certified instructor? With whom?
  • Are you available for questions or concerns outside class? Can you refer to outside providers, and if so, whom?

In short, it’s not a bad idea to take the hospital class — just don’t let it be an exclusive source of information. There are a wealth of independent organizations that do an excellent job at preparing you for birth. There are methods like Bradley and Hypnobirthing, as well as comprehensive courses by Lamaze and CAPPA. (We’ll address method classes in this series as well, so stay tuned!)

For more on this topic, we found another excellent perspective here: 5 Reasons Not To Take Hospital Chilbirth Classes

Where did you take your childbirth classes? How did they help or hinder your understanding of birth? Did you have a good experience with the hospital?

Warmly,
Team Preparing For Birth

Childbirth Education Myths 2

Tuesday, February 11th, 2014

To see the first post in the series, click HERE.

books-150x150MYTH #2: “I hired a doula, so I don’t need any kind of childbirth class.”
More and more women are hearing about the benefits of having a doula on their birth team, and that is fantastic! As a doula, I would never do anything to dissuade a family from hiring a doula. However, just like her care provider, a woman’s doula should not be considered her primary source of comprehensive education. While many doulas are also childbirth educators, and are walking birth encyclopedias, there are many reasons that a birthing woman should look to a class for in-depth education.

1) Childbirth Educator is a different scope of practice and not the doula’s primary job.

A doula’s primary job is informational, emotional, and physical support throughout a woman’s pregnancy, labor, birth, and immediate postpartum period. Her scope is limited, and while some education will be a natural consequence of her relationship with her clients, it is not the primary objective. When it comes to the informational support, a doula’s primary role is to find out the individual needs of her client, then refer to resources relevant to her situation (including childbirth classes), so her client can educate herself.

2) Though a doula will spend time educating her clients, the education will not be comprehensive in nature.

Most doulas only offer two or three prenatals at about an hour each, but even if there are more than that, as well as phone and email support, it will not be enough to create a solid foundation of general birth knowledge for a client to base her decisions on. In contrast, a childbirth class is often 10 hours or more of hands-on education, creating that solid, needed base of information. Doulas build on this bedrock, tailoring their support to supplement your knowledge.

3) Even doulas who happen to be educators cannot provide all your education within framework of doula fee.

Doulas know that we can’t cover all the bases adequately within the bounds of our doula-client relationships. If our clients have taken a good comprehensive class, they benefit from being familiar with information so that in labor, they can recall that info for themselves with minor prompting from their doula. Doulas know that active labor is not the time for a 45-minute information bomb! It’s better if our clients have that information ahead of time, tucked away and ready to pull out when it’s actually needed.

Doulas who are educators often offer private or group classes at a discounted rate for this very reason.

4) Doulas know that childbirth classes are a key way to encourage active participation from the woman’s chosen birth partner, and making the birth team dynamic more effective.

Partners are more likely to be able to attend classes than they are to attend doula prenatals, and will learn more about their own place on the birth team through role-playing, relaxation exercises, labor practice, and hands-on support techniques. Doulas adjust their support to the needs of their clients, and an active, educated partner, makes the entire birth process go more smoothly, because the doula won’t have to educate on the fly during labor. She can just encourage and remind the birth partner of what they already know.

So, if you have hired a doula, fantastic! Ask her for recommendations in childbirth education, or ask if she offers classes for an additional fee. You will never regret having both a good class, and a doula.

Where did you find your childbirth classes, and how did they help you grow in your knowledge of birth, the process, and what you wanted for your birth experience? Did your doula encourage you to take classes?

Warmly,
Team Preparing For Birth

Childbirth Education Myths 1

Monday, January 27th, 2014

Over the next several weeks, Team Preparing for Birth will be debunking some common myths surrounding childbirth education classes. Check back every Monday to see the newest post.

books

 

 

 

 

MYTH #1: “I’m having a homebirth, and my midwife will do all my education.”

Home birth families often see childbirth classes as an extra, rather than a valuable and necessary tool to help them have the birth they are hoping for. The most common objection they have is that they will be able to get all the education they need from their midwife. While midwives do educate their clients to some extent, this perception that they can (or should) cover everything is a myth, for several reasons.

1) Education is not a midwife’s job.

Just as obstetricians are not childbirth educators, neither are midwives. Just because midwives are more likely to do more education than an obstetrician, does not mean they give comprehensive education, and they should not be expected to. That is not their job.

Rather, a midwife’s primary job is to maintain the clinical safety and health of the mother-baby dyad. This will involve some education, yes, but only as a by-product of good midwifery care.

A good midwife will encourage her clients to be active participants in their care by reading, taking classes, and educating themselves proactively, instead of passively relying on the lack of intervention common to home birth. Midwives want clients who are thinking women, who take responsibility for their own care, and who can integrate what they learn in practical ways.

 

2) The reality of transport.

Another downside to relying solely on your midwife for childbirth education is the preparation for hospital transport. Realistically, around 10% of women and babies need something that cannot be offered at a homebirth, for whatever reason. It is not a midwife’s job to prepare you for the hospital.  Her job is to prepare you for birthing safely at home. Therefore, an expert on the hospital system is needed to prepare a birthing woman, in case of a transport. Most midwives spend very little time in the hospital, due to the low transport rate, so their expertise on local practices may be limited.

On the other hand, childbirth educators work very hard to stay up-to-date on all policy changes, protocols, and the general attitude of the staff in local hospitals. They often work (or have worked) as doulas, and have regular opportunities to interact with staff in the local hospitals that midwives simply don’t have. (This is not a criticism, merely a reality.)

While a midwife can go over what a typical transport looks like in her practice, a good childbirth education class will be able to prepare the client for what a hospital birth will look like. She can help the client to understand how to navigate the environment, and teach her how to communicate with the staff effectively.

 

3) The birth tool belt.

Midwives know that most women need a wide array of pain management techniques available to them, since an epidural is not an option at home. While a midwife will teach her clients the importance of stress management, emotional health, and relaxation, there is no substitute for a good independent childbirth course where you can actually practice tried and true techniques from all kinds of sources. This creates a solid foundation of knowledge, provides varying perspectives, and allows the birthing pair time and space to learn or review valuable tools for labor.

 

4) Prenatal appointments can only cover so much.

Even though midwifery appointments are much longer than typical obstetric appointments, it is still a very limited amount of time for a woman to learn all she needs to know about birth. Not to mention the birth partner, who may not be able to attend very many of the appointments. Childbirth education can fill in the gaps, empower a birthing pair, and provide opportunity to practice valid techniques in a real-world environment.

It is never wise to assume that your care provider will simply take care of everything, no matter who they are. Leaving the decision-making and responsibility solely in your midwife’s hands is not fair to her, to you, or to your baby. You owe it to yourself to take a proactive approach to childbirth education.

 

Dad Matters – A doula’s perspective

Sunday, September 29th, 2013

Many men in our culture are fairly apprehensive about birth. Most have never seen a real birth, or talked about it outside of sex ed. They are often nervous about birth itself, seeing their partner in pain, the what-ifs, and all that may come after. They doubt their ability to support their partner in her journey, and wonder if they’ll be strong enough.

In fact, they often doubt and fear and wonder just as much as their partners do, but are often not allowed to express it, because they’re not the ones giving birth, so they feel that they don’t really matter. They may feel like they don’t have much voice in the process, and are just expected to go along for the ride, smiling and nodding whenever the experts speak.

Yet, at the same time, they are expected to know everything about birth, protect their partner, communicate her wishes, and support her physically and emotionally without pausing for breath.

Many worry that they just can’t live up to all of that. It really is an awful lot to ask of one human being, after all. Especially since history shows us that there have always been many support people surrounding a mother during birth.

Still, many men don’t realize just how much they are capable of. They don’t realize that they matter, too, and that they can enter their partner’s birthing space with confidence, ability, and strength to meet the challenges of supporting a labor and birth.

 

So, how do we help fathers to step into the birthing space with confidence?

 

We free them to be who they are, that’s how. We let go of our expectations, and help them to form their own expectations and desires for supporting the birth of their child. We help them to see that they alone can define their role in the drama and sacredness of birth.

I would suggest two important things that may help a father gain confidence and acquire tools to help him fulfill the role he wants to play during birth: 1) Independent childbirth education classes, and 2) Hiring a doula.

The more a man knows, the less he will fear birth, and taking Childbirth Classes is one of the best ways to lower anyone’s fear level in anticipation of birth. Many men appreciate information given in practical, interactive ways, and independent childbirth classes are often right up his alley. He can join with like-minded dads, ask questions, and have his concerns addressed more readily.

Information is a great, big factor in helping couples manage their stresses and fears regarding birth—as much for the father as it is for the mother. As an educator, at the beginning of a series, I usually see high levels of apprehension, which quickly fade from week to week, to be replaced by realistic expectations and informed confidence in both parents.

This is just as powerful for the father as it is for the mother. When Dad has confidence in Mom’s ability, she believes in herself all the more, and Dad begins to see that he has power to influence her for the better! Dad is able to acclimate himself more readily to the realities of birth, and begins to realize that he is an important part of her support team. Perhaps the most important part.

He feels a little more ready to step into his support role, and probably has clarified what he wants that role to look like. He will feel more confident about what he can do, and more realistic about what he might not be able to do.

 

In which case, he may begin to consider…

 

Hiring a Doula to help him fill in the gap in the support team he might not be able to fill himself. If he participates in choosing and hiring a doula, he is much more likely to have his own expectations met, as well as those of his partner. When Mom and Dad are both fully supported, Dad is far freer to just be and do what his partner needs him to be and do.

While he will likely remember a lot of what he has read and learned about, that information may become secondary to him during the birth, and take a backseat to more immediate concerns in his mind.

He may become simply focused on loving this woman who is birthing his child. And why shouldn’t he? Why should he have to remember every counter pressure technique? Every massage technique, position change, or even the water jug and bendy straw? Why shouldn’t he be the face close to hers, his eyes beaming his love, concern for, and confidence in her?

A doula allows Dad to be front and center in the support role he always wanted to fill for Mom, in whatever way makes the most sense for their individual relationship in this particular moment. If he wants to be the Expert – he ought to be equipped to do that. If he doesn’t, then he needs the space and freedom for that, too. Or anything in between.

When he is free, all his anxieties and apprehensions tend to fall away, and he finds that birth is a challenging, beautiful, amazing space to be in with his partner. He finds that he is strong to meet the challenge, just like she is. Together, they grow in strength and confidence, becoming truly ready to meet this tiny new person they have made.

Doulas help open wide the door, making the birthing space more navigable, understandable, and pleasant for fathers. This, in turn, can only benefit the mother as she is able to rest in the support of her birth team. She no longer feels concern for her partner, because he shows no reason for her to be concerned. She is able to just birth.

Then, we can just step back and watch, as he exceeds all the expectations we have laid on him, and as he steps into Fatherhood in the way that makes the most sense to him and his new family.

Tiffany Miller, CLD, CCCE

EMAB and Doulaparty Team Up

Friday, June 22nd, 2012

 

 

Join the #doulaparty on Twitter or follow along at DesirreAndrews.com, June 22nd 6pm PT/9pm ET to kick off summer birth work with something extra special!

 

I am very excited that Earth Mama Angel Baby is sponsoring this weeks live chat. EMAB has amazing products for all types of birth professionals and families.

 

A note from the EMAB Team:

 

Are you a midwife, doula, nurse or obstetrician looking for pure, safe products to comfort postpartum mamas and brand new babies? You’ve come to the right place! Earth Mama Angel Baby offers safe alternatives for your clients who are concerned with detergents, parabens, 1,4-Dioxane, artificial fragrance, dyes, preservatives, emulsifiers and other toxins. Earth Mama products are used in hospitals, even on the most fragile NICU babies, and they all rate a zero on the Skin Deep toxin database, the best rating a product can receive. Earth Mama only uses the highest-quality, certified-organic or organically grown herbs and oils for our teas, bath herbs, gentle handmade soaps, salves, lotions and massage oils.

Earth Mama now offers a Birth Pro Cart for wholesale pricing available for birth support professionals! Join Earth Mama Angel Baby on the #doulaparty chat Friday June 22 to talk about their new shopping cart plus answer any questions you may have. Earth Mama will be giving away Postpartum Bath Herbs and Monthly Comfort Tea, Mama Bottom Balm, Mama Bottom Spray, and a grand prize of their new Travel Birth & Baby Kit!

Social Media and You

Sunday, October 16th, 2011

Get your pregnancy, birth or postpartum story heard!

I am looking to interview several mothers/families who have been positively changed, supported or impacted emotionally, physically, socially, educationally and/or spiritually during the perinatal (pregnancy, labor, childbirth, postpartum) and/or into the first year of mothering/processing birth outcomes through the use of/participation in social media outlets (Twitter, Facebook, Google+, Forums, Message Boards, etc.).

Purpose: Information will be used to complete a speaking session about birth and social media, as well as, material for additional writing, educational sharing opportunities.

If you are interested, please email me by October 31, 2011 with your contact information, when due if pregnant, how old your baby is if in the postpartum period and how you were affected by social media.

Contact: Desirre Andrews – Owner of Preparing For Birth LLC, birth professional, blogger, mentor, healthy birth advocate and social media enthusiast. Site: www.prepforbirth.com

Email: desirre@prepforbirth.com

Tips to finding the right “childbirth” class

Friday, October 14th, 2011

If you were my best friend, I would tell you there is not any one-size-fits-all “childbirth” class.  Education can be foundational to informed decision making and better outcomes for both mother and baby.

I encourage you to go about choosing a class series in the same way you would choose a provider or birth location. Do some investigating and even interview the educator.

In the search:

  • Get referrals from:
    •  Women who have had or wanted the type of birth you are desiring
    • From local birth groups or doulas
    • Your provider
  • Do a web search for classes in your area. There may be many offerings of differing methods and philosophies outside and within the hospital setting.
  • If  you are thinking about a hospital sponsored course, find out if it is a comprehensive series or a what happens to women once they get to our hospital class? This is otherwise known as a good patient class.
  • Check out the course website, then call or email the instructor to get a feel for her style and philosophy. Even a hospital based educator should be able to call you back or email you.

Before paying and registering:

  • How long is the series?
    • A comprehensive series is between 12 and 24 hours of instruction and a minimum of  4 class sessions up to 12 class sessions. The condensed express classes of one or two partial days are not designed for good retention or appropriate processing. It IS worth the investment of time.
  • When is the class? Day of week and time of day needs to fit into your lifestyle. Again, I encourage your investment over a period of time versus a one-day class. If you cannot find a fit, consider a private class. It is important to have classes finished by 35 or 36 weeks pregnant.
  • Where is the class held? Classes may be held in like-minded businesses (chiro office, yoga studio, doula office), in home, care provider office, birth center or hospital.
  • What organization is the instructor trained and certified with? Though certification is not required, it can be very important what training and background an educator has. If instructor is certified, check out the organization’s philosophy and beliefs.
  • What does the instructor’s experience involve?
  • What is the instructor’s philosophy and style?
  • What is the cost of the course? Classes can cost anywhere from free through a hospital to a few hundred dollars. It really can be a wide range. Find your comfort level. Though expect to invest in a good class. Free or low cost classes are often not comprehensive in nature.
  • What is the course content? A comprehensive class should include a variety of topics, such as, pregnancy basics,  common terminology, normal physiologic changes, emotional health and connection, exercise, nutrition, prenatal testing, birth plans, informed consent, communication skill building, overview of spontaneous labor and birth, labor milestones with comfort and position strategies, overview of all options in labor and birth, labor partner role,  immediate postpartum, navigating first weeks postpartum, overview of infant feeding, infant norms, medications and interventions, cesarean, unexpected events, role-playing scenarios, relaxation practice and local/online resources. It is usual to expect homework on top of class time as well.
  • What are the birth outcome statistics for class participants? It may be difficult though to get true data whether a philosophy-based or method-based class.
  • What is expected of me as a class participant?
  • What do I need to bring?
  • Who may come with me?
  • Is there a lending library?

Say What? Getting a handle on birthy terminology.

Wednesday, February 16th, 2011

So often I am in conversation and forget that everyone does not eat, drink and sleep birth related information like my peers and I do.

I have put together a list of useful terms and definitions to take the “What?” out of navigating the host of terms surrounding pregnancy and birth.

  • AROM – Artificial Rupture of Membranes – using a finger or tool to open the amniotic sac to to allow the fluid to release.
  • Birth Center – Free standing location usually run by one or more certified nurse midwife. True birth centers are almost always independently run. They are not overseen by a hospital or in a hospital. May be near a hospital. Often set-up like a home birth space and epidurals or other pain medications are not available.   Hospital “birth centers” are labor and delivery floors not birth centers in the true sense of the term.
  • Bloody Show – Mucous and blood mixed together as dilation and effacement occurs.  Starts off as blood tinged mucous and becomes heavier as labor progresses.
  • Braxton-Hicks – Practice contractions that do not dilate or efface the cervix often felt at the top of the uterus versus the bottom.
  • CBAC – Cesarean Birth After Cesarean – This is a repeat cesarean after a woman desires and tries to have a vaginal birth after cesarean.
  • Cervix -The lower portion of the uterus that provides an opening between the uterus and the vagina. Also known as the neck of the uterus that softens, effaces, dilates and changes position during labor.
  • Cesarean – Baby born via a surgical incision made through the abdomen into the uterus.
  • Contraction – Tightening and loosening of your uterus. Productive contractions are often felt at the bottom of the uterus, start out like period cramps and progressively grow stronger, longer in length, and closer together.
  • Doula – Is an assistant who provides various forms of non-medical and non-midwifery support (physical and emotional) in the childbirth process. Based on a particular doula’s training and background, the doula may offer support during prenatal care, during childbirth and/or during the postpartum period. A birth doula provides support during labor. A labor doula may attend a home birth or might attend the laboring at home and continue while in transport and then complete supporting the birth at a hospital or a birth center. A postpartum doula typically begins providing care in the home after the birth. Such care might include cooking for the mother, breastfeeding support, newborn care assistance, errands, light housekeeping, etc. Such care is provided from the day after the birth, providing services through the first six weeks postpartum. In some cases, doula care can last several months or even to a year postpartum – especially in cases when mothers are suffering from postpartum depression, children with special needs require longer care, or there are multiple infants.
  • Effacement – The thinning of the cervix which occurs before and while it dilates.
  • Endorphins- Any of a group of peptide hormones that bind to opiate receptors and are found mainly in the brain. Endorphins reduce the sensation of pain and affect emotions.
  • Epidural - A medical method of giving pain relief during labor. A catheter is inserted through the lower back into a space near the spinal cord. Anesthesia is given through this catheter, and results in decreased sensation from the abdomen to the feet.
  • Episiotomy – A surgical procedure to widen the outlet of the birth canal to facilitate delivery of the baby and avoid a jagged rip of the perineum. (Natural abrading or tearing is preferred and episiotomies are not evidence-based to be used except under specific circumstances).
  • ERCS – Elective Repeat Cesarean
  • First Stage – Early, Active, and Transition. This encompasses the effacement to 100%, dilation to 10 centimeters/complete, position movement of cervix from posterior to forward as contractions begin while staying longer, strong and closer together prior to pushing and delivery.
  • Foley – A foley catheter is used to release the bladder if a woman unable to urinate due to an epidural, post surgery, or with a swollen urethra post birth.  It can also be used for successful cervical ripening in lieu of cytotec.
  • Fourth Stage – First hours after placenta is delivered.
  • Fundus -  Top of the uterus. During labor contractions the fundus thickens and gets more firm as the strength of contractions increase and dilation increases.
  • HBAC – Home Birth After Cesarean
  • Ina May’s Sphincter Law -Tapping into the concept that if one sphincter is open and relaxed, the others will also open, relax and be able to handle, quite adequately, the task at hand. This also includes the aspect of birth requiring privacy, sacredness, and honor as well so a woman feels safe, unwatched and supported.
  • Induction – To attempt to artificially start labor usually by pitocin, artificial rupture of membranes with or without cervical ripening (Cytotec, Cervadil, Prepadil or Foley Catheter).
  • Intervention – Anything that does not exist in a spontaneously, naturally occuring labor and delivery that is done.
  • Kegel Exercises – Named after Dr. Arnold Kegel, consists of contracting and relaxing the muscles that form part of the pelvic floor (sometimes called the “Kegel muscles”).
  • Lochia – Post birth bleeding that though a wound site from the placenta detaching from the uterine wall, it mimics a heavy and long menstrual period.
  • Midwife – Is a person usually a woman who is trained to assist women during pregnancy,  during childbirth, and postpartum as well as the newborn post birth.  There are many types of midwives – some work in the home, at birth centers or in the hospital.
  • Miso – Misoprostol is the pharmacological name for Cytotec a drug used for cervical ripening and induction though a controversial, off and against label used ulcer Medication
  • Mucous plug - The mucous that blocks off the non-dilated and non-ripened cervix for protection.
  • Natural Birth – Labor and vaginal delivery free from intervention except for intermittent fetal monitoring. In the hospital only a saline lock and intermittent monitoring. Can also mean no monitoring.
  • Obstetrician – Is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of women and their children during pregnancy, childbirth and the immediate post birth time.
  • Oxytocin – A hormone made in the brain that plays a role in childbirth and lactation by causing muscles to contract in the uterus (womb) and the mammary glands in the breast. It also plays a role in bonding with mate, child, and socially.
  • Pelvic Floor Muscles -The sphincter mechanism of the lower urinary tract, the upper and lower vaginal supports, and the internal and external anal sphincters. It is a network of muscles, ligaments, and other tissues that hold up the pelvic organs.  Includes bladder, rectum, vagina and uterus.
  • Pelvis -The basin like cavity formed by the ring of bones of the pelvic girdle in the posterior part of the trunk in many vertebrates: in humans, it is formed by the ilium, ischium, pubis, coccyx, and sacrum, supporting the spinal column and resting upon the legs.
  • Perineum – The area between the anus and the vulva (the labial opening to the vagina).
  • Pitocin (oxytocin injection, USP) is a sterile, clear, colorless aqueous solution of synthetic oxytocin, for intravenous infusion or intramuscular injection.
  • Placenta -The organ that develops during pregnancy that transports nutrients to the fetus and waste away from the fetus. The placenta is attached to the uterus and is connected to the fetus by the umbilical cord.
  • PROM – Premature Rupture of Membranes – when the amniotic fluids releases before labor starts.
  • Prostaglandin – Any of a group of hormone like fatty acids found throughout the body, esp. in semen, that affect blood pressure, metabolism, body temperature, and other important body processes such as cervical ripening.
  • RCS – Repeat Cesarean
  • ROM – Rupture of Membranes
  • Saline Lock/Buffalo Cap/ Hep Lock – Is the apparatus that the IV line hooks into.  It is silicone tubing that is lightweight with a plastic needle that stays under the skin to allow easy vein access.
  • Second Stage – Pushing phase after cervix is completely dilated to delivery of baby.
  • SROM – Spontaneous Rupture of Membranes during labor.
  • Stripping membranes -  Pressing the amniotic sac away from the inside of the cervix.
  • Third Stage – Delivery of baby to delivery of placenta.
  • UBAC – Unattended Birth After Cesarean
  • Umbilical cord – The cord that transports blood, oxygen and nutrients to the baby from the placenta.
  • Uterus -The muscular organ in which a fertilized egg implants and matures through pregnancy. During menstruation, the uterus sheds the inner lining.
  • Vagina – A muscular canal between the uterus and the outside of the body. Also known as the birth canal.
  • Vaginal Birth – Baby born vaginally with or without medication and intervention.
  • VBAC – Vaginal Birth After Cesarean
  • WBAC – Water Birth After Cesarean

Why Childbirth Education?

Monday, November 22nd, 2010

I sit here and ponder Why childbirth education is important?. I am an educator because I think it can be a vital piece to the preparation puzzle prior to welcoming a baby.  I use the word “can” versus “is” due to the fact that all educational offerings are not created equally.

It is known that only a percentage of expecting mothers attend a childbirth class series. Perhaps they believe the staff will explain everything when they get to the hospital, they really have a deep trust in the process and are reading up on everything, or since they are having a home birth that additional education is unneeded. Whatever the reason, women are not getting the foundational information that can be incredibly helpful toward confidence, ability, decision making and mothering far beyond the birth itself.

A good childbirth class series (or rather perinatal class) is well worth the monetary and time investment for most first time mothers and can benefit those who have already birthed.  My post on choosing a childbirth class is a good jumping off point to figuring out what type of course suits the individual expecting mother (her partner or labor support).

A class series worth the time and effort will be comprehensive in nature, not just covering labor and birth. What does that look like? A class that covers midway third trimester pregnancy through 4-8 weeks postpartum. It is content that is deep and is applicable to real life.

A sample of course content:

  • Pregnancy Basics
  • Common Terminology
  • Normal Physiologic Changes and “helps”
  • Exercise
  • Nutrition
  • Prenatal Testing
  • Birth Plans
  • Informed Consent
  • Communication and Self-Advocacy Skill Building
  • Overview of spontaneous Labor and Birth
  • Labor milestones with Comfort and Positioning Strategies
  • Overview of all Options in Labor, Birth and Postpartum
  • Labor Partner Role
  • Immediate Postpartum
  • Navigating first weeks Postpartum
  • Overview of Infant Feeding and Norms
  • Bonding
  • Medications and Interventions
  • Cesarean and VBAC
  • Unexpected Events
  • Role-playing Scenarios
  • Relaxation and Visualization Practice
  • Local/Online Resources

How the educator reaches her class is fundamental to the learning process and take away of participants.  I encourage women to interview the potential educator. Finding the right fit in a class is no different that in provider, doula or birth location.

Even if a woman knows she wants an epidural, TAKING A GOOD CLASS is vital because she will be having a natural birth the epidural is on board and her Plan B could very well be a natural birth. Being prepared will only serve her well in the fluid process known as labor and delivery.

Gaining knowledge that will help a woman to partner with her provider, address her own needs fully and help her to define her own birth philosophy gives her a leg up on being responsible and in charge in her own health care and even outcomes.

The vast scope of what a solid class series can offer an expecting mother (her partner or support person) is incredibly valuable and can not be understated. A class that provides for encouragement, comfort, safety, respect, connection, structure, evidence-based information and real life application can plant seeds and prosper skills that will carry a woman well into her mothering years. These skills are for life, not just for labor and birth. I am stunned often by how birthing knowledge carries me in daily ability with my own family.

Here’s to happy and deep learning!

Choosing Your Childbirth Class

Sunday, November 21st, 2010

Being a childbirth (perinatal) educator is a position that affords great opportunity to positively influence women in the childbearing year and far beyond.  It is also a great responsibility that ought include: self-assessment, continuing education, evidence-based curriculum, the ability inform with discernment and the willingness not to teach a good patient course.

With all of this in mind, it is important that pregnant women choose their childbirth class wisely. There is not any one-size-fits-all class.

How does one go about choosing a childbirth class? I encourage you to go about choosing a class series in the same way you would choose a provider or birth location. Do some investigating and even interview the educator.

Off to a good search:

  • Get referrals from women who have had or wanted the type of birth you are desiring.
  • Check out your local birth groups and get referrals.
  • Ask your provider for a referral.
  • Do a web search for classes in your area. You may be surprised that there are many offerings method and philosophy based outside and within the hospital setting.
  • If thinking about a hospital sponsored course, find out if it is a comprehensive series or a what happens to women once they get to our hospital class? This is otherwise known as a good patient class.
  • Check out the course website then call or email the instructor to get a feel for her style and philosophy. Even a hospital based educator should be able to call you back or email you.

Before registering for a class series:

  • How long is the series? A minimum of 12 hours is needed to be a comprehensive series. At least 2 different class sessions over two different weeks, but  preferably a minimum of 4 class sessions. You may find classes up to 12 sessions. Be wary of condensed one or two day classes as there is not enough time to process information and retain it well. It IS worth the investment of time.
  • When is the class? Day of week and time of day needs to fit into your lifestyle. Again, I encourage your investment over a period of time versus a one-day class.
  • Where is the class held? Classes may be held in like-minded businesses, in home, care provider office or hospital.
  • What organization is the instructor trained and certified with? Though certification is not required, it can be very important the training and background an educator has.  Check out the organization to make sure you agree with it.
  • What does the instructor’s experience involve?
  • What is the instructor’s philosophy and style?
  • What is the cost of the course? Classes can cost anywhere from free through a hospital to a few hundred dollars. It really can be a wide range. Find your comfort level. Though expect to invest in a good class. Free or low cost for everyone is often not comprehensive in nature.
  • What is the course content? A comprehensive class should include a variety of topics, such as, pregnancy basics,  common terminology, normal physiologic changes, exercise, nutrition, prenatal testing, birth plans, informed consent, communication skill building, overview of spontaneous labor and birth, labor milestones with comfort and position strategies, overview of all options in labor and birth, labor partner role,  immediate postpartum, navigating first weeks postpartum, overview of infant feeding, infant norms, medications and interventions, cesarean, unexpected events, role-playing scenarios, relaxation practice and local/online resources. It is usual to expect homework on top of class time as well.
  • What are the birth outcome statistics for class participants? It may be difficult though to get true data whether a philosophy-based or method-based class.
  • What is expected of me as a class participant?
  • What do I need to bring?
  • Who may come with me?
  • Is there a lending library?

I hope you find this list helpful and are able to find the just right fit. I look forward to your feedback.

Announcing New Addition to the PFB Team

Saturday, April 3rd, 2010

I am very excited to announce the addition of  Lori Welch, BS, CCCE to the Preparing For Birth teaching team. She is a CAPPA Certified Childbirth Educator and also Lamaze trained. She has experienced both hospital and home births herself.  She has a deep calling for assisting others in their pregnancy, birth and early parenting journeys.

Beginning in May 2010, she will begin teaching and overseeing the bulk of  PFB group classes.

Class registration will remain the same. Her contact information will be lori@prepforbirth.com.

I look forward to working alongside her and expanding the available offerings for birthing families.

Rethinking the nature of intervention in childbirth

Saturday, January 16th, 2010

There is much awareness and conversation of what the routine interventions are that can occur during the labor and birth process within the hospital environment.  These interventions can include induction, augmentation with Pitocin, epidural, or cesarean. In all my professional and personal roles, I am privy to a great amount of pregnancy and birth stories. Within these experiences there are many “silent” yet obvious interventions that are hidden in plain sight under the guise of protocol, practice and societal expectation.

My current list of hidden in plain sight interventions in no particular order that can make a difference on how a woman labors and ultimately delivers her baby is below.

  • The uniform -Asking and expecting the mother to give up her clothes for the hospital gown.
  • Who’s on first? – If care provider is part of a large practice or on-call group a woman may have never met or have any knowledge of the person who’s practice style and philosophy is helping to guide and steer her labor and delivery. On-call CP may or may not adhere to the birth plan the laboring woman worked out with her own CP.
  • On a short leash – Continuous monitoring even if she is not high risk, medicated, or being induced/augmented.
  • The big drag around – Requiring IV running with absence of medical need.
  • Staying put – Asking or requiring the laboring woman to stay in bed for ease of staff without medical need.
  • Ice chips and Jello – Disallowing snacks and sometimes even actual water even though labor is hard work.
  • The marketing tool – Disallowing the laboring woman to get into the touted tubs or showers since it isn’t convenient for staff and she will not want to get out.
  • One is enough – Limiting the amount or type of support persons a woman is allowed to have with her.
  • I know more than you – Treating the laboring woman as if she knows nothing or shouldn’t know anything.
  • If you don’t… – Instead of giving informed consent and refusal, telling only what bad could, maybe happen.
  • Attitude and atmosphere – Negative, non-listening, lacking compassion, leaving the door open, ignoring requests, and the like when a woman is laboring.
  • Only if you ask – Though some wonderful practices are in place, they are only offered if a laboring woman or postpartum mother ask/insist on it.
  • Bait and switch – The official tour of labor and delivery and the reality of labor and delivery don’t fit together.
  • New with bells and whistles – The pretty with all the fancy bells and whistles like wi-fi, flat screen tv’s, etc. have to be paid for somehow. Because of this investigate the intervention rates there.
  • Routine vaginal exams – By and large VE’s are very subjective and can vary greatly between one person to the next on how they score a VE. This variation can deeply affect the course of a woman’s labor and delivery.  Women birthing in the hospital really only “need” a VE upon entrance for assessment of where she is in labor, if she desires an epidural/IV narcotics, if she is having a very prolonged labor, or if she feels pushy.
  • Pushing the epidural – When a woman is moving, moaning, making noise or just doing her thing in labor and it causes the staff discomfort or worry.  It could even be that anesthesiologist is going in to surgery and it can only happen now.

Simply because a societal norm is birthing at the hospital, as well as, what routinely goes on there, doesn’t mean the hidden in plain sight interventions are wise or harmless.

My goal here is to give pause and broader thinking to what intervention means for labor and delivery as another tool in planning and preparing for childbirth with eyes wide open.

Some thoughts on birth and being a consumer.

Sunday, January 3rd, 2010

While “teaching” childbirth class the topic of being a consumer is addressed often in a variety of ways.  I have a firm belief that a woman has the ability to understand, be well educated, and make her own decisions. It is in no way in my job description to tell someone else how she must birth or how to do it in the right way.  She is the one who needs to take the information, explore it and apply it to her self and situation.  Being a consumer in her childbearing year is a key component.

I have a great and deep sense of obligation to give truthful, helpful, real life applicable information to the families I am blessed to work with.  Because of this my mantra is,  “You go home or stay home with your baby and are the one who must live with the decisions and outcomes from them. Not the doctor, midwife, nurse, doula, educator – no one else.  We all go home to our own lives. So if you have to live with all that happens then do your best to choose wisely to what you can live with.”  No mother escapes the outcomes and the legacy it leaves behind forever no matter who makes the decisions for her. Even if it seems easier at the time to allow others to call the shots, I can hope the epiphany of this will help the pregnant woman to push for what she really needs and wants instead of being a passenger in her own process.

Birth options are integrated into prenatals and/or class structure as we discuss birth philosophy, birth planning, re-interviewing care provider, realistic expectations for chosen birth location, and interventions and medications.  Most often I find that women have no idea that there are so many options available for the asking or available in a reasonably close proximity to our local area.  This tells me that care providers expect the burden of knowing the options is to be on the pregnant woman to find out about, explore, and ask for.  She may find that in this process she and her care provider/birth location are either well on or not on the same page with her needs and desires.  This is where she can decide if needed to seek another provider and/or birth location.  There almost always is a way, it may mean more work, effort, and at times out of pocket expense. Some women choose to relocate, ask for help with out of pocket expenses in lieu of baby shower gift, petition insurance to cover the “right” provider…

Really as a consumer the burden is on her to find the right fit and go for it.  It is not for her to fit into whatever is the local expectation for her as a birthing woman.  This comes down to something akin to buying a car because the dealer tells you this is the car you must buy because everyone else has bought it and even though it clearly does not suit your needs, you still buy it.  I have never heard of that happening, yet I hear of women day in and day out having this sort of exchange from prenatal care through the birthing day with their care provider and/or birth location staff.

When it comes down to it, I really want women to have what is individually needed and desired. Who is paying the bills? Who is keeping the hospitals, birth centers, ob/gyns and homebirth midwives in business? Those caring for birthing women ought sit up and take notice. You all wouldn’t exist without birthing women paying for your services.

Every provider or birth location has a practice style, protocol base,  etc.  So why not honestly explain expectations, protocols, practice style in detail at the first visit or during the tour so the mother who is hiring you or birthing at your location can decide whether or not right off the bat if this is a solid fit? No one provider or location is going to fit with every mother nor is every mother going to fit with every provider or location.  Whatever a provider or birth location is good at, expects,  and is striving to be, put it out there so the mother coming in knows what she is buying in to.

My dream is that every birthing woman will know all the options and subsequently exercise her want to the care she desires even if it means walking with her cash or insurance card, since ultimately she lives with all that transpires positive, negative, or in between.

Preparing For Birth – Affirmations

Friday, October 9th, 2009

Guarding what you put into your eyes, ears, and mind is such an important part of pregnancy and birth.  As women we learn socially, from one another.  When we allow the pervasive negativity (TV, horror stories, fearful education, good patient education, unsupportive comments, etc.) to take root we lose so much inborn knowledge and wisdom of all the women who came before.  I encourage you to read the below affirmations, use them, tweak them, and then write your very own. Place affirmations everywhere that you are. Encourage others around you to also speak them to you. whenever you think of labor and birth, recite your affirmations.  Build in the positive at any opportunity. If someone gets a negative experience out to you, stop and ask what she would have or could have done differently if she was able.

  • I will take labor one contraction at a time. I can do ANYTHING for a minute or two.
  • I am able to make the best possible choices for a healthy, joyful birth.
  • I TRUST my body to labor smoothly and efficiently.
  • My design is PERFECT to birth my baby.
  • I trust my baby and body to choose when labor will begin.
  • I will receive the start of labor and I will labor well.
  • I accept the unknown of labor and birth.
  • My baby already knows how to labor and come into my arms.
  • I am well equipped to mother my baby.
  • I can make choices and decisions based out of love/evidence not fear.
  • I embrace the concept of healthy pain.
  • I am welcoming my contractions.
  • I have enough love to go around.
  • There is always enough love for me.
  • I am strong, confident, assured, and assertive and still feminine.
  • I am helping my baby feel safe so that she can be born.
  • I am a strong and capable woman.
  • I am creating a totally positive and new birth experience.
  • My pelvis is releasing and opening (as have those of countless women before me).
  • I am accepting my labor and believe that it is the right labor for me, and for my baby.
  • I now feel the love that others have for me during the birth.
  • I will treat my mate lovingly during the birth.
  • I will have exactly who I need supporting me for my birth.
  • I am birthing where I will be the safest, most peaceful, and most encouraged.
  • I have a beautiful body. My body is my friend.

If you would like to add to my list, please email me at desirre@prepforbirth.com.

Preparing For Birth – Pregnancy Nutrition

Tuesday, September 22nd, 2009

during childbirth class there is always a question of “What should I eat?”.  Pulling from the FDA pyramid plan for moms interactive website, the below information puts it into an easy perspective.  I input information based on an average sized 30 year-old pregnant woman.  On the site, you can put in your information to personalize it for age, weight, multiples, and more.   You can also get menus to print out to make it extra simple to follow a solid plan. Below the chart, there is a complete listing of proteins to eat.  I added this since women often get far too little protein (the FDA recommends a minimum of 60 grams per day though other schools of thought start at 80 grams per day).

Nutrition is the foundation of toward a healthy pregnancy and baby.  Growing a new human being is not a simple task, so giving yourself the proper building blocks can make a big difference.  I hope this helps sets you on a path of happy and healthful eating.

1st Trimester 2nd Trimester 3rd Trimester
Grains 6 ounces 8 ounces 9 ounces tips
Vegetables cups 3 cups cups tips
Fruits 2 cups 2 cups 2 cups tips
Milk 3 cups 3 cups 3 cups tips
Meat & Beans ounces ounces ounces tips
Click the food groups above to learn more.
1 Make Half Your Grains Whole
Aim for at least this amount of whole grains per day. 3 ounces 4 ounces ounces
* You will need the free Adobe Acrobat Reader plug-in to view and print the above PDF file.
2 Vary Your Veggies
Aim for this much weekly.
Dark Green Vegetables 3 cups 3 cups 3 cups
Orange Vegetables 2 cups 2 cups cups
Dry Beans & Peas 3 cups 3 cups cups
Starchy Vegetables 3 cups 6 cups 7 cups
Other Vegetables cups 7 cups cups
Oils & Discretionary Calories
Aim for this amount of oils per day. 6 teaspoons 7 teaspoons 8 teaspoons
Limit your extras (extra fats & sugars) to this amount per day. 265 calories 360 calories 410 calories
Physical Activity

Physical activity is also important for health. Adults should get at least 30 minutes of moderate level activity most days. Longer or more vigorous activity can provide greater health benefits. Click here to find out if you should talk with a health care provider before starting or increasing physical activity. Click here for more information about physical activity and health.


Inside The Pyramid

Meats

What foods are included in the meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts (meat & beans) group?
Divider

All foods made from meat, poultry, fish, dry beans or peas, eggs, nuts, and seeds are considered part of this group. Dry beans and peas are part of this group as well as the vegetable group. For more information on dry beans and peas click here.

Most meat and poultry choices should be lean or low-fat. Fish, nuts, and seeds contain healthy oils, so choose these foods frequently instead of meat or poultry. (See Why is it important to include fish, nuts, and seeds?)

Some commonly eaten choices in the Meat and Beans group, with selection tips, are:

Meats Food Gallery
Meats*

Lean cuts of:

beef
ham
lamb
pork
veal

Game meats:

bison
rabbit
venison

Lean ground meats:

beef
pork
lamb

Lean luncheon meats
Organ meats:

liver
giblets

Poultry*

chicken
duck
goose
turkey
ground chicken and turkey

Eggs*

chicken eggs
duck eggs
Dry beans and peas:

black beans
black-eyed peas
chickpeas (garbanzo beans)
falafel
kidney beans
lentils
lima beans (mature)
navy beans
pinto beans
soy beans
split peas
tofu (bean curd made from soy beans)
white beans

bean burgers:

garden burgers
veggie burgers

tempeh
texturized vegetable protein (TVP)

Nuts & seeds*

almonds
cashews
hazelnuts (filberts)
mixed nuts
peanuts
peanut butter
pecans
pistachios
pumpkin seeds
sesame seeds
sunflower seeds
walnuts
Fish*

Finfish such as:

catfish
cod
flounder
haddock
halibut
herring
mackerel
pollock
porgy
salmon
sea bass
snapper
swordfish
trout
tuna

Shellfish such as:

clams
crab
crayfish
lobster
mussels
octopus
oysters
scallops
squid (calamari)
shrimp

Canned fish such as:

anchovies
clams
tuna
sardines

*Selection Tips

Choose lean or low-fat meat and poultry. If higher fat choices are made, such as regular ground beef (75 to 80% lean) or chicken with skin, the fat in the product counts as part of the discretionary calorie allowance. Click here for more details on discretionary calories. divider
If solid fat is added in cooking, such as frying chicken in shortening or frying eggs in butter or stick margarine, this also counts as part of the discretionary calorie allowance. Click here for more details on discretionary calories. divider
Select fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as salmon, trout, and herring, more often (See Why is it important to include fish, nuts, and seeds?). divider
Liver and other organ meats are high in cholesterol. Egg yolks are also high in cholesterol, but egg whites are cholesterol-free. divider
Processed meats such as ham, sausage, frankfurters, and luncheon or deli meats have added sodium. Check the ingredient and Nutrition Facts label to help limit sodium intake. Fresh chicken, turkey, and pork that have been enhanced with a salt-containing solution also have added sodium. Check the product label for statements such as “self-basting” or “contains up to __% of __”, which mean that a sodium-containing solution has been added to the product. divider
Sunflower seeds, almonds, and hazelnuts (filberts) are the richest sources of vitamin E in this food group. To help meet vitamin E recommendations, make these your nut and seed choices more often.

Birth Center Colorado

Tuesday, September 22nd, 2009

Though most hospitals have “birth centers”, they are really nothing more than the labor and delivery floor where births take place. The only freestanding birth center in Colorado is the Mountain Midwifery Center.  MMC is owned and run by Tracy Ryan, CNM  along with 4 other main midwives along with supporting staff.

What is a birth center? From the MMC site: “A Birth Center is designed to be a “Maxi-Home” not a “Mini-Hospital.” Here we strive to allow women to labor and birth in a true home-like environment while providing one-on-one care that helps ensure superior mom and baby outcomes. The Birth Center is not just pretty birth rooms, it is an education-intensive program of care. From your first visit through the birth of your baby and beyond, the Birth Center is designed to facilitate healthy choices for families.”

Located about an hour from Colorado Springs in Englewood, the birth center is a fantastic location to birth.  Check it out!

Preparing For Birth: 35+ and Pregnant

Wednesday, September 16th, 2009

Hourglass

The disturbing trend in treating ALL  “advanced maternal age”  mothers (over 35 at the time of impending birth) high risk continues to grow despite lack of evidence to do so.

My original post from 3.5 years ago still rings true today.

They are being subject to weekly Biophysical profiles or Fetal Non-stress tests tests that are normally reserved only for high-risk mothers and babies from as early as 32 weeks in pregnancy.  On top of the scans, these mothers are often pressured to agree to an early delivery of their babies by means of labor induction or cesarean even without other risk associations.  This is growing more and more prevalent especially for women over 35 who are first time mothers.

I have heard even from women that at their first OB appointment they are being told they will be induced at 39 weeks as a standard of practice and expectation for signing on with said provider.  The seed of fear and worry is being planted that their growing baby will die if the pregnancy goes to 40 weeks or longer.  What a way to start out a provider/mother relationship.  I would call that a red flag of immense proportion.

So what really is the big deal with “old” mothers?  This study Advanced Maternal Age Morbidity and Mortality correlates various medical issues with “AMA” mothers though the biggest hot button is an elevated yet unknown cause of perinatal death.  This statement alone has caused a huge shift in the way these mothers are viewed regardless of  overall pregnancy health and absence of any known risk associations. ACOG’s February 2009  Managing Stillbirths maintains there is a risk to older mothers with no explanation as to why there is a risk, what the percentage of  risk increase is or any prevention protocols.  Seems dodgy since the other groups noted in the bulletin have all the data included.

There are some serious problems with any practitioner taking this study and applying it across the board to “AMA” women.  The study even says so much, “It is important to note that the findings of this study may not be generalized to every advanced-maternal-age obstetric patient in the United States. Although the FASTER trial patient population was unselected, meaning that patients were not excluded based on any confounding factors such as race, parity, BMI, education, marital status, smoking, pre-existing medical conditions, previous adverse pregnancy outcomes, and use of assisted reproductive care, there may have been significant patient or provider self-selection.” So the population could have been skewed from the get go by provider or patient selection, along with the fact that it seems the only point of homogeneity is present in that most of the women were Caucasian.  Throw all these women in a pot and see what happens?  Next step is to make protocols and change practice style upon weak findings?

The study also shows an increased risk for cesarean by “AMA” mothers.  “As with prior literature, this study demonstrated that women aged 40 years and older are at increased risk for cesarean delivery. Older women may be at increased risk for abnormalities of the course of labor, perhaps secondary to the physiology of aging. It is possible that decreased myometrial efficiency occurs with aging. Nonetheless, maternal age alone may be a factor influencing physician decision making. It is uncertain whether the increased rates of cesarean delivery are due to a real increase in the prevalence of obstetric complications or whether there is a component of iatrogenic intervention secondary to both physician and patient attitudes toward pregnancy in this older patient population.” Very interesting. So “old” women are perceived as being unable or problematic so they have less successful vaginal birth outcomes. Now that is a self-fulfilling practice style with a huge dose of ageism thrown in.  I also wonder what the cesarean rate in this age grouping is going to be due to these protocols.

Let’s get to the perinatal and neonatal death risks.  The study says: “Studies regarding an increased risk for perinatal mortality in women of advanced maternal age have been controversial. In this study, the increased risk of perinatal mortality was not statistically significant for patients aged 35–39 years (adjOR 1.1). Age 40 years and older was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of perinatal loss (adjOR 2.2). There were only 119 stillbirths and 37 neonatal demises in total. As a result, we could not draw any meaningful conclusions about the etiology or timing of perinatal mortality in women of advancing maternal age. The reason that advanced-maternal-age patients may be at increased risk of perinatal mortality is unknown. The failure of uterine vasculature to adapt to the increased hemodynamic demands of pregnancy as women age is a proposed explanation. So in conclusion, we have no idea why this might occur and have no way of counseling “AMA” mothers to lower the risk especially those over 40. Another noteworthy thought is that this study had 79% under 34 year old women, 17% 35-39 year old women, and only 4% women over aged 40.  So with such a small grouping ALL women considered “AMA” are being put under very heavy handed protocols to delivery their babies in the 39th week of gestation.

In closing, I find it difficult to believe that anyone who reads this study would change practice style because of it and move pregnant patients who are otherwise maintaining a healthy pregnancy without risk associations to a high risk model of care. Amazingly the study itself says the same thing, “In summary, the majority of women of advanced maternal age deliver at term without maternal or perinatal adverse outcomes.” And, “The role of routine antenatal surveillance in women aged 40 years and older requires further investigation because these women seem to be at increased risk for perinatal mortality, including stillbirth. Although the likelihood of adverse outcomes increases along with maternal age, patients and obstetric care providers can be reassured that overall maternal and fetal outcomes are favorable in this patient population.”

Couldn’t have said it better myself.

Since the original posting – - – instead of women being told they must be induced in the 39th week they are now being “offered” non-medical, cesareans as a first course of action.  This sort of pressure is not evidence-based or even medically ethical in my opinion.

Preparing For Birth – Quotes from Women on What Pushing Feels Like

Thursday, August 20th, 2009

A couple of weeks ago I went on a quest to find out just what pushing was like for other women.  As an educator and doula it is probably one of the more challenging concepts to address.  Why?  Well some of the imagery can be quite vulgar.  “Push like you are pooping.” Do women REALLY want the image of pooping out their babies?! “The urge will overwhelm you and you cannot help it.” That also is not quite right some women never get the urge until the baby is very low and engages the nerves and some women will have the urge when baby is high and dilation isn’t complete (I did not say premature because I believe when the urge comes pushing “gruntily” with the peaks is alright as perhaps that will facilitate complete dilation and rotation of babe).  Some women feel great rectal pressure, some feel it in their abdominal muscles, and some don’t feel much at all going into it. Hey I do not believe we need to be fixed in this area.  I think whatever a woman’s body does is right for her body.

Below are many quotes that I frankly trolled for to edify women everywhere on the spectrum of what pushing is like. I could bore you to tears with the physiologic nature of the process but that isn’t what you really want to know now is it?! If you have questions on the new perineal massage, please refer to my previous entry http://prepforbirth.com/2009/08/25/new-episiotomy.html.

Quotes from real women

“My babies #1-4 practically fell out. #5 I was in what looked like early labor for 4 days. Midwife assistant came over, checked me, I was at 7 cm but ‘not in active labor’. I got into it quickly! Long story short I pushed, painfully, for 3.5 hours, baby had 11″ cord with a true knot. She needed to be pinked up but is almost 3 and is doing well.”

“When I was coached to push (w/ no 3..first natural birth) I was in agony. When I was left alone and did not push (w/ no 4), life was good.”

“I feel like if I can just get to the pushing phase, it will be a breeze from there.” (and it was. The whole “surrender/dilate” phase is much more challenging to me than the whole “take control/pushing” phase.)”

“Pushing was fantastic with my 2nd baby and awful with my 3rd! It was really surprising because after my 2nd birth I thought “Okay so pushing is the really fun and satisfying part! That’s when it gets EASY.” Then my third birth totally shocked me. Pushing was the most painful and difficult part of the birth. I had stayed so calm and collected… until then. Every pregnancy and birth is so different!”

“I love the way it feels to have a baby move through me and into my waiting hands.”

“I *loved* pushing. I didn’t do it for very long (two contractions), but it was so great to finally get there. I was told to purple push (not in those terms – the nurse told me to hold my breath), and intellectually I knew I shouldn’t, but I tried it and it really did feel like I was more productive that way. I felt like a warrior. It was awesome.”

“Before anyone hates me for only pushing through two contractions, you should know that I’d been in labor for three days – so it all comes out in the wash ;-)”

“Pushing with my 2nd was horrible. 3+ hours of the worst pain I had experienced at that point in my life. Turns out her little fist was up by her cheek (um ouch) and her head did not mold much. My 3rd I did not push because she was precipitous and we were trying to get to the hospital. I felt like all the energy in the world was gathering and swirling at my fundus and then suddenly flowed through me carrying her with it. It was the best physical experience of my life.”

“I have heard some say that pushing feels good.. um, I personally have not experienced that and I have had clients remark the same … :p”

“Hmm…Definitely the best part of labor and delivery. For me though – never had any “urge” to push but still had baby out in 20 mins…I think I was feeling determined being a VBAC mom…still, would have been easier if I felt the need to and not just contractions. “

“Heard lots of clients say it feels good after hours of labor”

“Ahhh, I’m not so fond of the pushing. Did it for 2 1/2 hours with my daughter (LOA) and though it was only about 20 minutes with my boys, they were both OP. That was, shall we say, unpleasant. I cannot relate to those who’ve told me it was such a relief!”

“My labor was surprisingly short, only 6 hours and she’s my first baby so far. I woke up in active labor and at 4 cm and I wanted to push THE WHOLE TIME! It was horrible having the nurse say I couldn’t push yet when I wanted to so badly, but once I did get to push, oh my goodness, it felt incredible. So much control and power, it felt so good to finally work to end. 3 big pushes and there she was. :)”

“Sheer, immeasurable power. Unbelievable!”

“Babies actually come out of your butt. Don’t let anyone tell you otherwise.” One of my clients recently said that. :)”

“Birth is shockingly rectal” – Gretchen Humphries. She was totally right.”

“Pushing with my first felt like I was satisfying an urge, an uncontrollable urge. It felt almost desperate I couldn’t stop it. (kinda like having that rectal urge when you REALLY have to poop). Pushing with my second was no big deal, I followed my urges again and pushed 3x and out she came in her 10# glory. It was extremely satisfying and powerful I felt like I had just finished exercising. Amazing!”

“The ring of fire OH MY it is indeed! Though as soon as the burn started the whole are went numb almost like too hot or too cold numb and the power of the urge to push my son out was almost beyond description.  Pushing was never easy for me as I have an unusual pelvic shape.  But my last son WOW no molding and quite a large head to birth him was incredible really.  No tearing, just some abrasion.  Recovery was a snap.”

“I had at the point of delivery what was the best orgasm of my life!”

“Pushing was totally primal.  I had an incredible urge and it took over.”

Questions and Answers

  1. I have had a previous episiotomy, do I need another one automatically? No you don’t.  Depending on how your scar has set and the position you push in the scar can re-open or it adhesions in the scar will need to be broken up.  I would suggest perineal massage prenatally if there are any adhesions to break them up and soften the area prior and to choose a pushing position that doesn’t put all the tension on that exact area.
  2. Is is wrong to push when I am not fully dilated? Not necessarily.  Now I think grunty smaller pushes with those contractions can be effective to complete dilation if you are in transition.  Prior to that change the position you are laboring in to change where baby is placing pressure.  Knee chest can be very effective to abate very early pushing desire.
  3. What if I poop during pushing? Some women will pass some stool and some won’t. You may here that when pushing the right way you may pass some.  Hey open bottom is vital to pushing, so hey it is a normal but not always occurence.  A fantastic nurse, MW or doc will not actually wipe it away but simply cover as to not cause constriction of the sphincter muscles which can disturb pushing progess. If it is possible to discard the stool without disrupting you, it will be done very quietly and discreetly.
  4. I am very modest, do I have to have all my “glory” showing? Absolutely not.  You can maintain good modesty all the way up to delivery.  Even then you do not need to be fully exposed.  Truthfully a home birth or birth center birth with a midwife if likely going to help you have your modesty concerns respected and honored. Really no one needs to put hands in you during pushing, or needs to stretch anything, or needs to see everything either.  A midwife is trained to see by taking a quick peek or simply to know when she needs to have hands ready to receive baby and to offer external positive pressure if mom wants.

Check back later more Q and A to come as more questions are sent to me.

Preparing For Birth – A sample low-intervention birth plan

Thursday, August 13th, 2009

A birth plan is a tool to express your desires and needs for birth and initial postpartum, as well as, to make sure that you and your provider are on the same page.  Your birth plan should be brief (no more than one page) and only have the bullet point information that is specific to your care and desire or not usually done by your care provider or birth location.

Discuss with your care provider prior to labor and bring a copy with you to your birth location.  Remember it is not a legal document that your location of delivery or care provider must adhere to.

Here is a sample plan for an out of the home birth:

Birth Needs and Desires for: _______________________. Care Provider:____________________________________.

Estimated Due Date: ____________________________.

Labor

I am planning on a no to low-intervention natural birth.  I plan on being mobile, lightly snacking, drinking orally, and having ___________ present.   I understand that intermittent monitoring of me and my baby will be necessary.  I want to be fully consented for any procedure that may come up and fully participate in the medical care for myself and my baby.  I understand that there is pain management available to me, I will ask for it if I so desire.

  • I plan on wearing my own clothing. I will ask for a gown if I change my mind.
  • I would like a saline lock in lieu of an IV
  • In the event of an induction and/or augmentation is medically necessitated-
    • Ripening – Foley Catheter instead of Cytotec (misoprostol)
    • Pitocin – A very slowly increased dosage
    • AROM – will only consent to if an internal fetal monitor is a must.
  • Delayed cord clamping for at least 5 minutes (baby can receive oxygen or other helps while still attached to me).

Postpartum and Baby Care

  • Request that my baby is on my belly or chest for assessments and warmth (even oxygen can be given on me)
  • Delayed bathing
  • Delaying vaccinations including eye ointment and vitamin k.
  • Exclusive breastfeeding, no pacifiers, sugar water, or formula
  • No separation from me unless absolutely medically necessary not just protocol.

Cesarean: In the event a cesarean becomes necessary and is not a true emergency requiring general anesthesia.  I would like to keep the spirit of my plan A to plan C so the delivery can be as family centered and intimate as possible.

  • Only essential lighting
  • Only essential conversation related to the surgery and delivery
  • Lower sterile drape or have a mirror present so I may see my baby emerge
  • Only one arm strapped down so I may touch my baby
  • Pictures and video
  • Aromatherapy as I desire for comfort, abate nausea and to mask surgical odors
  • Baby to stay with me continuously in OR and recovery
  • If baby must leave OR for treatment, my partner/spouse goes with baby and I would like my ____________ to stay with me so I am never alone.
  • Breastfeed in OR and/or recovery
  • Delayed immunizations
  • Delayed washing and dressing of baby
  • No separation from me except what is absolutely medically necessary

Applied Skills for Childbirth and Postpartum Professionals

Saturday, August 8th, 2009

Applied Skills for Childbirth and Postpartum Professionals

A continuing education seminar featuring sessions taught by CAPPA Faculty Trainers, designed to benefit Doulas and Educators alike.

August 22, 2009 ~ 9 a.m. – 4:30 p.m. ~ Swedish Medical Center.

. Amanda Glenn MA, CPD – Navigating the NICU Experience

. Desirre Andrews CCCE, LCCE, CLD, CLE – Interpreting the Research

. Ana M. Hill, CLD, CLE, CCCE – Support for Sexual Trauma Survivors

. Laurel Wilson BS, CLC, CLE, CCCE, CLD – Today’s Breastfeeding Technology & Tools

Contact hours: 6 CAPPA CEs, 7.2 ICEA CEs.

Registration through August 14th is $65.

Walk-in Registration is $75.

Optional Networking Breakfast 8 – 9 a.m., $8. (No walk-ins)

Optional Dinner and “Pregnant in America” screening 5-6 p.m., $10. (No
walk-ins)

Space is limited. To ensure your space, please register right away!

Registration at
http://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=903MJPLO66V_2fg2EpFXs3_2bw_3d_3d

For more information, email amanda@houseofdoula.com.

Increasing your opportunity for a vaginal birth in a cesarean stricken culture.

Tuesday, August 4th, 2009

Today the cesarean rate is an alarming 31.8% (CDC 2007 preliminary data).  Only a maximum of 15%  of birthing women should be having cesarean deliveries in order to keep mortality (death) and morbidity (poor outcomes) to the healthiest levels according to the World Health Organization. With the staggering discrepancy in what should be and what is, you NEED to care about this topic.  You could have a questionable cesarean like so many others.

It is important that you the childbearing woman understand how to have the healthiest birth for you and your baby which is most often a no-to-low intervention vaginal birth.

When a cesarean occurs for a truly medical and/or life saving reason it is necessary and the benefits far outweigh the consequences for mom and baby.  The cesareans that occur for other than truly medical and/or life saving reasons are often not necessary or became necessary due to external influence that skewed the labor and delivery outcome (routine induction, epidural,  impatience by provider, mal-position of baby, staying in bed during labor, routine continuous monitoring, pushing in one position, lack of food and water during labor, routine augmentation of labor, lack of support, etc.)

Below is a list of ways to promote having a vaginal birth even if you have already had a baby this information needs to be known.

  • Take the ICAN webinar on cesarean prevention.
  • Interview before choosing your care provider – you are doing the hiring! Know his or her statistics.  If you do not get a clear answer, that is a RED flag.  You need individualized care. ou and your baby deserve no less.
  • Interview both midwives and OB’s.
  • Research your chosen birth location well.  There are other options outside of the hospital – home and birth center.
  • Hire a doula who shares your philosophy and is comfortable with the type of birth you desire. Some searchable places for a doula are: www.cappa.net, www.dona.org, and www.alldoulas.com.
  • Without medical reason standing in the way, labor at home into active labor if traveling to a hospital or birth center.  Well established labor upon arrival to the hospital or birth center decreases the opportunity for interventions, medications, and cesareans.
  • Get educated! Take a childbirth class that promotes confidence, consumer awareness (knowing rights and responsibilities), and evidence-based practices. A “good patient” class is not what you want to take.  READ books that share positive stories and good information.  A few of the searchable sites are: www.cappa.net, www.independentchildbirth.com, www.lamaze.org, and www.ican-online.org.
  • Turn off your TV – stop watching the dramatic birth shows.  They are not real.
  • Use mobility in labor.
  • Drink and snack in labor.
  • Say NO to routine interventions – meaning interventions or medications without a true medical reason. These can include, IV with fluid running, artificial rupture of membranes, continuous monitoring, wearing of hospital gown, and vaginal exams.
  • Say no the the epidural completely or at the earliest at 6 cm’s dilated.
  • Push and deliver in positions other than the reclined or “C” position unless that feels good and baby is coming well that way.
  • Only have those around you who will support what you need and desire in labor and birth. When you close your eyes who is there with you in your labor “cave”? Who doesn’t fit well there?
  • Study yourself for what comforts, assures, and adds to your feeling of safety.
  • Eat healthy and exercise during pregnancy.
  • Read What Every Woman Needs to Know About Cesarean Section – http://www.childbirthconnection.org/article.asp?ck=10164
  • For more information on Cesarean recovery and support, VBAC education and support, and Cesarean prevention go to www.ican-online.org.
  • Bottom line – take your money and walk if you are not being listened to and treated as a partner in your care.

Useful items for labor and delivery

Wednesday, July 22nd, 2009

I am often asked what someone needs to take to the hospital or birth center.   I am going for items that may not be normally thought of along with some tried and true items. Wherever a mother is going to have her baby – it is her space, her labor cave as it were.  Now for a hospital or birth center birth painters tape could be a good idea for some items on the list as not to mark up the walls.

Appealing to the senses: Items that speak to sight, touch, sound, smell, and taste.  Try and figure out where the items fit!

  • Pillow case that smells like you or your partner, really like your normal normal environment.  I eschew the thought of taking an actual pillow outside your home simply for the germs that are anywhere else you may deliver.
  • Your own clothing:
    • For her: robe, a sports bra, bikini top, tank top – something that can get wet and not be ruined.  Two piece outfit, a Binsi or bathing suit cover skirt.  Sandals, slippers, socks or flip flops.
    • For him/labor partner: sweats, shorts, pajamas, hoodie, pullover, socks, underwear – items other than just a pair of jeans.  Swim trunks in case she wants you in the shower or labor tub with her. Nakedness outside of a homebirth is generally reserved for the laboring woman. Flip flops or other waterproof foot covers.
  • A favorite blanket
  • Essential oils or scented lotion.
  • Pictures of other children, pets, favorite vacation, anything that is her happy place in thought, spirit and mind.
  • Flashlight and/or night lights to give subtle low light illumination.
  • Posters or phrases to put on the wall.
  • Music – soft, slow, upbeat, fast – whatever is relaxing for the individual.
  • Lip balm
  • Mints and lollipops
  • Toothbrushes and toothpaste
  • Colored items that soothe and encourage.
  • Affirmation cards or cd’s
  • Scripture or encouraging religious texts
  • Fresh herbs.
  • A cooler with easy to digest foods  for her- smoothies, yogurt, ices, peanut butter sandiwches, protein bars…..
  • A cooler with his favorite foods and drinks (again remember the toothbrush)
  • Special symbolic or religious pieces
  • Phone numbers of those who can encourage, pray, etc.
  • Something to cover the clock with.
  • your labor doula

Finally some of the inangibles that are not items:

  • Quiet
  • Peacefulness
  • Courage
  • Strength
  • Patience
  • Trust
  • Faith
  • Calm
  • Connectedness
  • Love
  • Joy
  • Excitement
  • Patience (not a typo)
  • Openness
  • Willingness

Be blessed and to all those who are pregnant – I hope for you to gestate peacefully.

ACOG revises labor induction guidelines

Tuesday, July 21st, 2009

uterobaby

(Originally posted July 2009. Information still relevant.)

ACOG released a press release today regarding a new practice bulletin revising labor induction guidelines.  Though the practice bulletin is not available on the ACOG site, a detailed review is available by Medpage today.  I hope to soon have the full copy to share.

Some high points I found in the explanation and review of the revision:

  • Misoprostol (Cytotec) should not be used to induce any woman with a previous uterine surgery or cesarean due to the increased risk of uterine rupture.
  • The Foley catheter is a reasonable and effective alternative for cervical ripening and inducing labor (as stated in my blog earlier this week).
  • The recommendation for fetal demise is for induction rather than cesarean unless unusual circumstances present as it is associated with maternal morbidity without fetal benefit.
  • ACOG also states that the assessment of “gestational age and consideration of any potential risks to the mother or fetus are of paramount importance for appropriate evaluation and counseling before initiating cervical ripening or labor induction.”
  • Admitting to this fact – At the same time, there have been a number of reports linking the induction of labor with increased risk of adverse events including uterine rupture and meconium-stained amniotic fluid.
  • “A physician capable of performing a cesarean should be readily available any time induction is used in the event that the induction isn’t successful in producing a vaginal delivery,” notes Dr. Ramin. Although rare, there are potential complications with some methods of labor induction. (perhaps less inductions that are for lack of medical reason will be done if a physician must induction sit?)
  • Post cervical ripening whether by medication or mechanical once the cervix is dilated, labor can be induced with oxytocin, membrane stripping, rupture of the amniotic membrane, or nipple stimulation. (using an alternative like nipple stim interesting)

 

 

Some low points I found in the explanation and review in the revision:

  • The new guidelines include seven recommendations based on “good and consistent scientific evidence” — considered the highest evidence level — including one that sanctions 25 mcg of misoprostol as “the initial dose for cervical ripening and labor induction.” The recommended frequency is “not more than every 3-6 hours.” (I want to see these studies)
  • ACOG said that the data on the safety of high-dose misoprostol (50 mcg every six hours) were “limited or inconsistent,” making its recommendation on high-dose misoprostol an evidence level “B” recommendation. (again studies please)
  • The practice of inducing labor has become more common. More than 22% of pregnant women undergo labor induction, ACOG says, and the overall rate doubled from 1999 to 2006. (once again – only 22% – this one I need to research)
  • Rapid delivery or lack of access to good care at home as a potential reason to induce labor in rural areas.

More possible low points:

  • Low- or high-dose oxytocin regimens are appropriate for women in whom induction of labor is indicated. (Pit to distress with high doses?)
 

 

So even ACOG says that induction needs to be taken seriously as there are risks and consequences associated.  Definitely I am in agreement with that. It IS a very big deal and the risks to not having your baby immediately must outweigh the benefits of baby staying put a little longer.


Rise and Shine Birth Thoughts

Sunday, July 12th, 2009

Normal, natural birth is spoken of all the time in the birth world.  It is discussed on many levels from the evidence of being overwhelmingly the safest and healthiest way to birth, to the emotional aspects of privacy, safety and support,  to following the money trail of interventive birth versus natural birth and so much more in between.

I ponder and sometimes struggle with what to share with expecting families and  how to share it.  Why the struggle?  This normal, natural birth viewpoint is counter-cultural.  I, along with many peers believe in the inherent design of women and babies to work as intended.  There is lack of belief in routine intervention, non-evidence based protocols or practice style that is created around pregnancy and birth being a tragedy in waiting.

Even in trepidation, the truths must be shared and not hidden simply because most of what is seen and heard in our culture is the opposite (think as an example of the media and the dramatic voice over person on those birthing shows).  The longer I am in this field and calling of work, I believe that protecting women from the truth for whatever reason is harmful.  I participated in a Henci Goer session several years ago at a conference that set this ideal permanently within me.  She asked many questions for the participants to answer.  One question was regarding telling options to expecting families even if they are not available locally – should you or shouldn’t you?  I stood for quite a time in front of the large paper on the wall while holding the marker in my hand.  There were many NO’s on the paper in front of me and it took some courage for me to write a commanding YES! next to their responses. I had bucked the trend.  Not easy, not a bit. When all the sheets were gathered and Henci peered at them to discuss all of the responses, she overwhelmingly said we have an ethical obligation to tell it all.  Phew I was not wrong in my group of peers, but sadly most of them said no probably out of the same fear as I had in answering the questions.  That moment gave me great strength and clarity not because Henci said so, rather because I stood in my conviction and faced the fear of being apart from others in the truth.

Why is it of the utmost importance to share all?  Because no one else goes home or remains home with that baby.  The care provider, staff, doula, educator….they all go home to their own lives.  Each expecting family must be able to live with the decisions made during pregnancy, labor, and birth.  Natural birth has many benefits but it isn’t consequence or risk free, so that too must be spoken of.  Each woman must decide what she needs and can best live with as a mother, wife, partner, even as a woman in her community who will go out and share her experiences with others.

I will often tell expecting families who contact me about childbirth education classes that they will receive much more than the anatomy, physiology, comfort measures, etc. from my course.  That very likely it will challenge to the core their beliefs and value systems surrounding what they know in their own birth culture of family, friends and personal history.

I love this work.  I hope someday to be replaced by the community based education women ought get back to. If not, I along with many others will be here to keep the conversation and education moving forward.

Childbirth Preparation: Prenatal Ponderings

Thursday, April 17th, 2008

Today pregnant women need to be consumers and self-advocates. Many childbirth classes are teaching strategies to better these skills. This is not by chance, but rather by the often one-size-fits all packaging and management from pregnancy onset to labor through immediate postpartum in the care provider offices and hospitals of today.

Many routine tests are done prenatally. Though prenatal care and these tests can help further healthy outcomes for moms and babies, too often women can be funnelled into a cycle of unnecessary fear, stress and choice limitation while in reality still healthy and maintaining normal pregnancy.

Below is a listing of common prenatal tests and practices for you to question (what is it for, what does it improve upon, what can it lead to in other tests or interventions, is it for low-risk moms and babies, what will I do with the information), research and decide on are:

  • pregnancy test by urine dip or blood work
  • ultrasound to date the pregnancy
  • blood pressure reading each visit
  • weight measure each visit
  • urine test – check for protein in the urine
  • fundal height measurement as pregnancy furthers
  • gestational diabetes testing
  • triple screen testing (AFP)
  • just because ultrasounds
  • ultrasound for fetal size
  • routine ultrasound for fluid level as “due date” approaches
  • biophysical profile(s) as “due date” approaches or passes
  • membrane sweeping

It is vitally important that you are equipped and aware of your care provider’s philosophy and usual practices.

What are you willing to do? What are you willing to bypass? How responsible for your pregnancy and birth are you willing to assume? At the end of the day you are ultimately the one who has to live with the choices you or your provider make.

Be a driver – you are more likely to arrive at the destination you desire.



Optimization WordPress Plugins & Solutions by W3 EDGE