Archive for the ‘postpartum’ Category

“Just Doing My Job”

Monday, September 13th, 2010

After having all four of my babies out-of-hospital (one at a birth center, the rest at home), and seeing how much respect was given to my babies, I have a hard time believing the above statement I have heard from so many baby nurses. Baby nurses who have such a sweet demeanor, and genuinely believe that what they are doing is “best” for the babies in their care. Their intentions are good, but their training goes contrary to some of the best evidence out there regarding the critical first hour after birth.

The following paper put out by Lamaze International sums up a lot of this evidence in one document. I encourage you to read it, and check out the pages of references and the studies mentioned in this paper for yourself.

Healthy Birth Care Practice #6 ~ Lamaze International

Things You Can Do to Keep Baby With You:

  • Consider an out-of-hospital birth. The same procedures (Vitamin K, Hep B, eye ointment, etc…) are usually offered by midwives, but all of these things can WAIT. Not one of them is necessary in the first hour after birth. This is a non-issue when you’re not in the hospital. Unless there is a clear medical emergency, the midwives will stay very “hands-off” most of the time.
  • Write a Baby Plan. Don’t take for granted that, just because your birth plan was honored, that the baby nurses will know what you want for your baby. They are completely unconnected to you as a birth patient, and deal exclusively with the baby. Ideally, summarize your 5 most important priorities regarding your baby’s care, put them on a cute 3×5 card, and lay it in the warmer. When the nurse comes in, she will see it lying there, and will know your preferences. If you would like tips on how to write a baby plan, and what should be on it, feel free to email me.
  • Ask for delayed cord clamping on your birth plan. This can buy you up to 10-15 minutes to negotiate with the baby nurses. If the baby is still attached to you, they can’t take him/her.
  • Understand this basic fact: Everything CAN be done in your arms. Even deep suctioning, oxygen, exams, injections, eye ointment, etc. There is no medical reason to take the baby to the warmer, and babies nearly always do far better when they are skin-to-skin between their mother’s breasts. (Here is one example of what I’m talking about.)
  • Hold onto your baby. Simply do not let go. Kindly look at the nurse and say something like “I know you need to so some things, but he/she’s fine right now, and you can have him/her in a little while.” They cannot use physical force to take your baby from you. It’s YOUR baby. Hang on to him/her. Especially if you’ve already put your desires on paper, and they are aware of what you want.
  • Ask that baby’s first bath be given at home. If the baby is unwashed, he/she is considered a bio-hazard, and the nurses have to glove up before touching the baby. This helps keeping any skin-to-skin contact limited to Mom & Dad (or partner), and can discourage the nurses from even bothering with unnecessary contact if universal precautions have to be taken.
  • Hire a doula. A doula is able to stay clear-headed and aware during that fuzzy, hormone-driven time immediately following birth, and can remind you and your partner of what you wanted(or did not want) for your baby when the nurse begins to ask for him/her. Even if they know you want to wait a full hour, many will try to persuade you that the things that “need” to be done MUST be done NOW. That is not the case, but in your vulnerable state, you are ready to acquiesce to anything, and a doula can help call your attention, or the attention of your partner to your already-made decisions and encourage you to speak up for your baby.

As well-intentioned and kind as many of these nurses are, they simply do not feel about your baby the way that you do. They do not carry the decisions made about the care of your baby home the way you do. To them, it’s just another day at work. Just another baby poked, prodded, and scrubbed. Contrary to how these nurses approach this, caring for a baby is NOT just a “job.” It is a privilege granted (and paid for) by the parents of the child.

Also contrary to what these nurses say, babies are not “just mad” at being messed with. These procedures (needle pricks, rough towels, deep suctioning) do cause the baby discomfort and pain. Of course they scream and cry! They are hurt, frightened, naked, and totally vulnerable. They deserve far more respect than they often receive. I have personally seen the great differences between babies born at home, and babies born in a hospital.

If newborn babies were really and truly acknowledged as fully human, with the full range of human emotions and ability to feel pain by medical staff; I think the procedures deemed “necessary” immediately after birth would look vastly different than they do now. The only way that can happen at this point in time is for parents to step up and speak for these little ones who cannot speak for themselves.

“Just doing my job,” doesn’t hold water. Nearly always, what is best for baby coincides with what is best for mother as well, and what is best for both is abundantly clear – uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact for at LEAST the first hour after birth.

There is no excuse NOT to respect a baby’s and mother’s first moments together, and to truly facilitate baby-friendly practices.

Preparing For Birth – Common Pregnancy and Childbirth Terms

Tuesday, August 25th, 2009

Below is a compilation of common terms and acronyms that women often will come across during pregnancy, labor, and delivery.  Check back as more will be added from time to time.

  • AROM – Artificial Rupture of Membranes – using a finger or tool to open the amniotic sac to to allow the fluid to release.
  • PROM – Premature Rupture of Membranes – when the amniotic fluids releases before labor starts.
  • SROM – Spontaneous Rupture of Membranes during labor.
  • ROM – Rupture of Membranes
  • Miso – Misoprostol is the pharmacological name for Cytotec a drug used for cervical ripening and induction though a controversial, off and against label used ulcer Medication
  • VBAC – Vaginal Birth After Cesarean
  • HBAC – Home Birth After Cesarean
  • WBAC – Water Birth After Cesarean
  • UBAC – Unattended Birth After Cesarean
  • CBAC – Cesarean Birth After Cesarean – This is a repeat cesarean after a woman desires and tries to have a vaginal birth after cesarean.
  • ERCS – Elective Repeat Cesarean
  • RCS – Repeat Cesarean
  • Natural Birth – Labor and vaginal delivery free from intervention except for intermittent fetal monitoring. In the hospital only a saline lock and intermittent monitoring.
  • Vaginal Birth – Baby born vaginally with or without medication and intervention.
  • First Stage – Early, Active, and Transition. This encompasses the effacement to 100%, dilation to 10 centimeters/complete, position movement of cervix from posterior to forward as contractions begin while staying longer, strong and closer together prior to pushing and delivery.
  • Second Stage – Pushing phase after cervix is completely dilated to delivery of baby.
  • Third Stage – Delivery of baby to delivery of placenta.
  • Fourth Stage – First hours after placenta is delivered.
  • Oxytocin – A hormone made in the brain that plays a role in childbirth and lactation by causing muscles to contract in the uterus (womb) and the mammary glands in the breast. It also plays a role in bonding with mate, child, and socially.
  • Pitocin (oxytocin injection, USP) is a sterile, clear, colorless aqueous solution of synthetic oxytocin, for intravenous infusion or intramuscular injection.
  • Prostaglandin – Any of a group of hormone like fatty acids found throughout the body, esp. in semen, that affect blood pressure, metabolism, body temperature, and other important body processes such as cervical ripening.
  • Uterus -The muscular organ in which a fertilized egg implants and matures through pregnancy. During menstruation, the uterus sheds the inner lining.
  • Cervix -The lower portion of the uterus that provides an opening between the uterus and the vagina. Also known as the neck of the uterus that softens, effaces, dilates and changes position during labor.
  • Vagina – A muscular canal between the uterus and the outside of the body. Also known as the birth canal.
  • Perineum – The area between the anus and the vulva (the labial opening to the vagina).
  • Pelvis -The basin like cavity formed by the ring of bones of the pelvic girdle in the posterior part of the trunk in many vertebrates: in humans, it is formed by the ilium, ischium, pubis, coccyx, and sacrum, supporting the spinal column and resting upon the legs.
  • Pelvic Floor Muscles -The sphincter mechanism of the lower urinary tract, the upper and lower vaginal supports, and the internal and external anal sphincters. It is a network of muscles, ligaments, and other tissues that hold up the pelvic organs.  Includes bladder, rectum, vagina and uterus.
  • Fundus –  Top of the uterus. During labor contractions the fundus thickens and gets more firm as the strength of contractions increase and dilation increases.
  • Placenta -The organ that develops during pregnancy that transports nutrients to the fetus and waste away from the fetus. The placenta is attached to the uterus and is connected to the fetus by the umbilical cord.
  • Umbilical cord – The cord that transports blood, oxygen and nutrients to the baby from the placenta.
  • Bloody Show – Mucous and blood mixed together as dilation and effacement occurs.  Starts off as blood tinged mucous and becomes heavier as labor progresses.
  • Stripping membranes –  Pressing the amniotic sac away from the inside of the cervix.
  • Mucous plug – The mucous that blocks off the non-dilated and non-ripened cervix for protection.
  • Lochia – Post birth bleeding that though a wound site from the placenta detaching from the uterine wall, it mimics a heavy and long menstrual period.
  • Cesarean – Baby born via a surgical incision made through the abdomen into the uterus.
  • Obstetrician – Is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of women and their children during pregnancy, childbirth and the immediate post birth time.
  • Midwife – Is a person usually a woman who is trained to assist women during pregnancy,  during childbirth, and postpartum as well as the newborn post birth.  There are many types of midwives – some work in the home, at birth centers or in the hospital.
  • Doula – Is an assistant who provides various forms of non-medical and non-midwifery support (physical and emotional) in the childbirth process. Based on a particular doula’s training and background, the doula may offer support during prenatal care, during childbirth and/or during the postpartum period. A birth doula provides support during labor. A labor doula may attend a home birth or might attend the laboring at home and continue while in transport and then complete supporting the birth at a hospital or a birth center. A postpartum doula typically begins providing care in the home after the birth. Such care might include cooking for the mother, breastfeeding support, newborn care assistance, errands, light housekeeping, etc. Such care is provided from the day after the birth, providing services through the first six weeks postpartum. In some cases, doula care can last several months or even to a year postpartum – especially in cases when mothers are suffering from postpartum depression, children with special needs require longer care, or there are multiple infants.
  • Birth Center – Free standing location usually run by one or more certified nurse midwife. True birth centers are almost always independently run. They are not overseen by a hospital or in a hospital. May be near a hospital. Often set-up like a home birth space and epidurals or other pain medications are not available.   Hospital “birth centers” are labor and delivery floors not birth centers in the true sense of the term.
  • Intervention – Anything that does not exist in a naturally occuring labor and delivery that is done.
  • Saline Lock/Buffalo Cap/ Hep Lock – Is the apparatus that the IV line hooks into.  It is silicone tubing that is lightweight with a plastic needle that stays under the skin to allow easy vein access.
  • Foley – A foley catheter is used to release the bladder if a woman unable to urinate due to an epidural, post surgery, or with a swollen urethra post birth.  It can also be used for successful cervical ripening in lieu of cytotec.
  • Induction – To attempt to artificially start labor usually by pitocin, artificial rupture of membranes with or without cervical ripening (Cytotec or Foley Catheter).
  • Epidural – A medical method of giving pain relief during labor. A catheter is inserted through the lower back into a space near the spinal cord. Anesthesia is given through this catheter, and results in decreased sensation from the abdomen to the feet.
  • Contraction – Tightening and loosening of your uterus. Productive contractions are often felt at the bottom of the uterus, start out like period cramps and progressively grow stronger, longer in length, and closer together.
  • Braxton-Hicks – Practice contractions that do not dilate or efface the cervix often felt at the top of the uterus versus the bottom.
  • Episiotomy – A surgical procedure to widen the outlet of the birth canal to facilitate delivery of the baby and avoid a jagged rip of the perineum. (Natural abrading or tearing is preferred and episiotomies are not evidence-based to be used except under specific circumstances).
  • Ina May’s Sphincter Law -Tapping into the concept that if one sphincter is open and relaxed, the others will also open, relax and be able to handle, quite adequately, the task at hand. This also includes the aspect of birth requiring privacy, sacredness, and honor as well so a woman feels safe, unwatched and supported.
  • Kegel Exercises – Named after Dr. Arnold Kegel, consists of contracting and relaxing the muscles that form part of the pelvic floor (sometimes called the “Kegel muscles”).

Preparing For Birth – Has episiotomy been replaced by this practice?

Tuesday, August 25th, 2009

In recent months I have noticed that during the end part of pushing and through delivery, care providers and/or nurses are doing very, very aggressive vaginal and perineal stretching.  This is not the gentle perineal massage I have seen in the past.  Even though I do not believe even that is necessary, it certainly was a far cry better than this.

To demonstrate, take your index and middle fingers from both hands and place them in your mouth on both sides with fingers facing in an outward pulling position inside your cheeks.  Now pull outward, stretching your cheeks and lips while “massaging” the inside.  Start gently, then get more aggressive. This is happening while soon a large malleable and smooth object will be pressing along those worked tissues.

How long do you think it would take for you to become swollen and bruised from this activity?  Can you imagine that there might be small tears and abrasions would be present from this if you continued for up to 30 minutes?

Now imagine after all that activity you have a large object in your mouth inhabiting the entire area including the widely opened and stretched lips. Next instead of you gently pushing the object out under your own control and power, you are told to NOT push it out but to allow for it to be removed for you. So imagine you already hyper extended lips being pressed further open with quite some force until it move through your open mouth.

How do you think the over worked, sore, possibly swollen,  and forcibly stretched tissues will react? Do you imagine tearing and damage?

Incredibly challenging and graphic descriptors to be sure.

Now imagine the alternative, there is no stretchy and pulling.  The large malleable and smooth object enters the space slowly so your mouth has time to adjust and accommodate it.  As the object approached your open lips, you slowly offer pushes to allow your lips to slowly stretch more than the norm.  Though it may sting and pull it is bearable.

Imagine now what your tissues would be like after that?  Sore? Some abrasion or some natural tearing?  Swollen a bit?  Even some bruising? Sure in reality you could be.  Accommodating a human baby through your vagina is a different experience than the usual.

How did the two processes sound to you?  To me I would much prefer the second one. Hands down.  How about your husband or partner?  Do you think this would be remotely decent to witness and then think ahead to actually having sexual activity with you again?

Though in my area, I rarely see an episiotomy done, I do see this very aggressive handling of the vagina and perineum routinely now.  To add to this, I am seeing more tearing severe tearing as well. When I ask the women about how their bottom is healing and feeling, I hear about more soreness, swelling, and bruising in the women who experience this.

So what do you do about it? Saying no to episiotomy during appointments and in making your birth plan is not enough.  Talk to your care provider ahead of time about the type of care you expect in late pushing and delivery. Talk to the nurse who is with you when you begin pushing. Tell your husband or partner to be on the look out for this aggressive technique so you can say NO. I also find that having warm compresses covering your perineum and vaginal opening can help abate it to a degree.

Here’s to a much healthier vagina, labia, and perineum post birth!

Preparing For Birth – Question of the Day #2

Thursday, August 20th, 2009

How did you react to and what were your feelings, words or thoughts after your baby was born (within the first one or two hours)?

Applied Skills for Childbirth and Postpartum Professionals

Saturday, August 8th, 2009

Applied Skills for Childbirth and Postpartum Professionals

A continuing education seminar featuring sessions taught by CAPPA Faculty Trainers, designed to benefit Doulas and Educators alike.

August 22, 2009 ~ 9 a.m. – 4:30 p.m. ~ Swedish Medical Center.

. Amanda Glenn MA, CPD – Navigating the NICU Experience

. Desirre Andrews CCCE, LCCE, CLD, CLE – Interpreting the Research

. Ana M. Hill, CLD, CLE, CCCE – Support for Sexual Trauma Survivors

. Laurel Wilson BS, CLC, CLE, CCCE, CLD – Today’s Breastfeeding Technology & Tools

Contact hours: 6 CAPPA CEs, 7.2 ICEA CEs.

Registration through August 14th is $65.

Walk-in Registration is $75.

Optional Networking Breakfast 8 – 9 a.m., $8. (No walk-ins)

Optional Dinner and “Pregnant in America” screening 5-6 p.m., $10. (No
walk-ins)

Space is limited. To ensure your space, please register right away!

Registration at
http://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=903MJPLO66V_2fg2EpFXs3_2bw_3d_3d

For more information, email amanda@houseofdoula.com.

What might a cesarean get you? Often more than is bargained for.

Tuesday, July 28th, 2009

This is a  slight re-do from a popular blog post from early 2008. The information is vital and pertinent to the near 1.5 million women (based on previous CDC data) who will have a cesarean surgery this year.

Having a cesarean section will almost always  get you a baby.  Generally there is much more to it and anyone could bargain for or anticipate even in the best of recoveries.

Let me count the ways in no particular order:

  • A scar that in no way makes a bikini look better. Sometimes described as a shelf or a pouch.
  • The feeling of failure, guilt or less than deserving of motherhood.
  • The struggle of living with the huge dichotomy of loving your baby and perhaps hating the birth.
  • Higher probability of losing your ability to have more children either through physiologic secondary infertility, pregnancy complications, self-induced secondary infertility, hysterectomy or lack of sexual intimacy in relationship.
  • Higher probability of difficulty in breastfeeding.
  • Postpartum depression or PTSD, especially in an unwanted cesarean.
  • The feeling of failure as a wife or partner.
  • Having others discount your feelings and needs. After all you “just” had a baby. Really you just had MAJOR surgery, perhaps by coercion, a true medical indication, or completely from interventions and medications.
  • Living with the idea that you failed to pass induction, you failed to push out your baby, you failed because _________ (fill in the blank).
  • Obtaining your records to find what you were told and what was written are different. Could your trusted care provider have lied and cheated you?
  • Simply finding out that no one told you and you didn’t think it would happen to you. That being induced, getting the epidural, allowing AROM, not getting out of bed, etc. is why you had the cesarean. Is maternal ignorance and fear enough to quell what you feel and make it okay?
  • How can you trust yourself as a mother when you ignored your maternal intuition and kept saying yes, because the nurse, midwife or doctor told you to?
  • The way your marriage or partnership takes a turn toward hell or in the least a divided place.
  • Living with dread when a hungry hand sweeps over your scar. Being sexual can be extremely difficult physically and emotionally.
  • Having great fear of becoming pregnant again.
  • Having great fear of going for a VBAC and ending up in the OR at the end.
  • Not being understood and having others say to your face how lucky you are that you got to take the easy way out.
  • Pain.
  • Difficulty moving, walking, getting up, rolling over, coughing, laughing, tending to personal cleaning…. You get the idea. It is surgery.

Though not every woman will experience what is on the list, many do.  For all of these – there a stories layered and interwoven for too many women.

Every thirty seconds a woman is surgically having her baby delivered. Light her a candle. Offer her a meal. Let her speak. Listen to her intently. Don’t judge her. Send her to ICAN. http://www.ican-online.org/.

The Doula Seed

Sunday, July 26th, 2009

Whenever I am asked why I am a doula, I need to stop and think for a moment.  My response every time is that as a doula I am filling the gap (along with others)  that is missing in today’s transient and autonomous society. When I respond, I am thinking of the days when girls and young women learned the ways of pregnancy to all things postpartum at the feet of their grandmothers, aunts, sisters, cousins, and other women in their community.  What a beautiful and age old scene that is.

Then that scene brings me to my own journey in becoming a doula.  Here is my “why” story.

Living without my own mother since I was 10 years old, I yearned for the mentoring and teaching that I am called to act upon in my life’s work.   Even without my mother, I was blessed to grow up around some other women who modeled breastfeeding, cloth diapering, and natural birth for me.

I also think of the journey that brought me to being a doula for real.

I had an epiphany one day almost 25 years ago when a close friend and I were waiting for the bus to get home from work.  She described her birth – left by her partner during pregnancy, her mother refused to come since she was unwed, and she was at an overtaxed county hospital where the staff was barely in the room to support her.  She was utterly alone and scared.  My heart broke for her and her daughter. No woman should ever be alone to fend for herself under those circumstances.  EVER.  In looking back, I can say at that moment my doula heart seed was planted though it would be years before the seed came to full bloom.

Fast forward a couple of years and I had a knack for mamas and babies.  I could help a baby latch and mom grow confidence in breastfeeding.  I knew how to calm a mama when she was tired and at her wit’s end. I understood the pregnant mama and could easily encourage.  I was invited to attend a birth of a family member I was very close to.  She delivered in a freestanding birth center.  It was an amazing natural birth with very little requirement of her except to labor and birth.  An atmosphere of encouragement, freedom, and calm. I will say it was one of the most comfortable places I have ever been in my skin supporting her.  I didn’t understand the job I had done with her, but it was good.  I think I was on a birth high for weeks.  The doula seed was beginning to ferment.

I attended birth along the way for friends and other family, assisted in breastfeeding and talking through general pregnancy issues. Mind you I hadn’t had my own children, was educated and worked in fields that had nothing to do with birth.  I loved the mamas and families that I knew.  When I started having my own family, it seems the mojo went into high gear.  I was asked questions all the time about many things pregnancy, birth and breastfeeding related, no matter where the place or situation.  Even my husband began fielding calls when I wasn’t home from friends who needed baby help.  The doula seed was slowly sprouting.

When my dear youngest boy weaned himself, I began wondering OKAY now what am I going to do while maintaining being a SAHM? My sister-friend “J” found the CAPPA website and told me I needed to take the trainings and then I could really support the families in my community as an extension of what I was already doing.  Get the education she said.  I went to the site, spoke to my husband at length and took the leap.   Three trainings in 5 months.  Then I began to to seek out clients, put together curriculum, and found a local doula group to join.  The doula seed exploded into a blossom of great fragrance about me.

I ill not say the work is easy. Anything worth any value is not.  From the prenatal meeting, to the birth while looking into a mother’s eyes encouraging her down the path so many have walked before, to the early postpartum time in assisting with breastfeeding, attachment and family health, I am honored and blessed doubly.  Participating in the most intimate time possible, witnessing the transformation that so often occurs in a woman (and her huband/partner/family), and hearing that first sound of life when her baby “speaks” is beyond description.  A miracle takes place each and every time.

The doula blossom has deep roots now.  On occasion it needs some pruning, soil treatment, and large doses of sunshine as all beautiful plants need to maintain health and well-being.  Still it is very good.

Preparing for Post Birth –

Saturday, July 25th, 2009

Putting effort into the initial postpartum period is in my opinion equally as important as preparing for pregnancy and birth.  Sometimes it is even more important due to circumstance or birth outcome.  Too many focus solely on the labor, delivery and perhaps the “stuff” that goes with having a baby while completely forgetting to look at all incredible change that occurs with having a new baby 24 hours a day, 7 days per week.

Below is a listing of important information to think about, investigate, understand and/or plan for.  Make a note of people in your immediate life that can be a resource as you go through the list.

Look carefully at class descriptions you may take in your local area, some are very thorough and others do not go into information you need in detail.

Here’s to postpartum preparedness!

Common Physical Changes for the Mother

Uterine Change and Bleeding

Breast Expectations and Breastfeeding Norms

Hormones and Symptoms

Recovery Requiring Attention

Vaginal Tearing, Episiotomy, Cesarean, Extreme Soreness or Swelling, Hemorrhoids

Nutrition

Common Psychological Changes

Mother and Father/Partner Changes

Processing the Birth Experience

Processing Becoming a Family

Postpartum Mood Disorders

Peer and Professional Support Resources

Understanding Your New Baby

Babymoon

How Baby’s Feed

Attachment

Infant Development

New Family Dynamic

Coping with Sleep Deprivation and Exhaustion

Managing Stress

Grieving the Changes

Siblings and Pets

Knowing How to Get the Right Support

Postpartum Doulas and Practical Support

Making Your Best Decisions

Defining Parental Roles – Financial, Baby Care, Changing the Status Quo

Choosing a Health Care Provider for your Baby

Early Infant Health Care Decisions – Vaccinations, Circumcision, etc.

Parenting Philosophies

Developing Your Parenting Style

Where Baby Will Sleep

Boundaries with Family and Friends

When to Seek Professional Help

Relationship Care

Realistic Expectations

Sexual Intimacy

Practicalities of Life

“Dating”

Priorities

Single Parenting

Arranging Practical Support

Making a Community

Parenting Needs

Unexpected Outcomes

Processing a Difficult Birth

Babies with Medical Needs, Coping and Advocating

Dealing with Loss, Grief, and Trauma

I offer a Postpartum Strategies class privately in the Colorado Springs area that goes into more detail on many of these topics.  My Bookstore lists several helpful books as well.

Eat My Placenta? Are You Crazy?

Wednesday, April 9th, 2008

Admittedly, I have never even considered eating my placenta – whether raw, steamed, blended, or dried & encapsulated. Ever. I’ve never even looked into it. However. On my doula yahoo group, there have been several – and I mean several – posts about this option. Up until about two weeks ago, I thought this was just a freaky, hippie, weirdo thing to do.

I have discovered that it really isn’t. It’s a viable option that seems to have far more benefits than I ever thought it could. Frankly, it’s still weird to me, but in the interest of learning all I can about the options women have, I started checking it out.

And, if I have another child, I will probably consider encapsulating my placenta and using it for many of the purposes listed on the following sites:

~Placenta Benefits
~Gentle Birth: Medicinal Uses of the Placenta
~Virtual Birth Center: What Can I Do With This Placenta?