Posts Tagged ‘CNM’

Doulas Benefit Care Providers, Too.

Monday, October 28th, 2013

Image credit: apperson.com/support

I’ve written a lot about the measurable benefits of trained labor support for women and their families, which is important. However, I believe firmly that doulas have great potential to benefit care providers and staff as well. As one more important piece of the birthing puzzle, doulas can either add to or detract from the big picture of any birth they attend.

When a doula is at her best, when she understands her role and her scope of practice, she brings freedom, communication, and peace to the place of birth.

Part of my Scope of Practice as a CAPPA-certified Labor Doula reads as follows:

During labor and birth, the labor doula provides the mother and her partner with physical, emotional, and informational support. She facilitates and promotes self-advocacy, informed choice, and effective communication between the family and care providers. She seeks to foster a cooperative, respectful, and positive atmosphere with all members of the birth team so that the mother can birth with confidence. (emphasis mine)

What does “effective communication” look like at a birth?

It looks like a bridge. A sturdy, well-built bridge that begins with openness, humility, and an extended hand from the doula to the staff member or care provider that does not interrupt their conversation with the client.

It’s remembering that the client chose her care providers just as much as she chose her doula.* That fact alone should elicit basic human respect from the doula toward those caring for her client. Period. Regardless if that respect is returned or not. Doulas do no one any good unless we do our best to leave those chips on our shoulders at home. We do best when we take the high road, and treat everyone on the birth team with dignity and respect.

Side note: respect doesn’t mean agreement or likeability. It simply means getting along, and choosing to work together toward a common goal: The safety and health (physical, mental, and emotional) of both mother and baby.

When a doula sees herself as an integral part of the birth team, and understands that everyone else there has their place (as long as her client chose them), there are a lot of benefits she has to offer to the care provider and staff she is working with.

Among those benefits:

  • Added perspective–Doulas can often get very creative when coming up with ways to help a labor progress effectively before medical interventions are truly needed. Care providers often appreciate suggestions that don’t interfere with safety, and that seem to help the mother.
  • Someone labor-sitting–Care providers are rarely available to labor sit as long as a doula can. Even home birth midwives may not have as much opportunity to do so, and usually arrive later in labor than a doula would. This means that a doula can fill in the provider and staff on what has been going on, what tricks have been tried, and things that may be relevant to improving her client’s care. The doula can often provide clarification where the mother’s or partner’s recollection is fuzzy. This helps the care provider have a more accurate picture of how labor is going.
  • Continuity of care for patient–This is one of the hardest things to provide as a care provider. Nurses, doctors, and hospital-based CNM’s change shifts–no matter what. Even home birth midwives may have to send a backup if two births are happening simultaneously. The doula provides one continuous thread of care, and we all know that this works out to better quality care in general. Also, can bond more quickly with the new people on shift, making her care easier for the staff and/or care provider, as they have to spend less time establishing trust.
  • Bridge of communication with patient–Doulas teach their clients to ask good questions, relevant to their own care, and how to understand the answers they’re given. This helps the client to build trust in her chosen provider, which makes caring for her easier for the care provider. A doula’s presence should facilitate togetherness at a birth, not a sense of “us vs. them.”
  • Extra set of hands–As much as care providers love to do hands-on care, many times they are simply not able to do so. Doctors, nurses, and even home birth midwives and their assistants, can easily get bogged down by charting, checking and setting up needed equipment, and (in hospitals) caring for other patients. This is as it should be, since the safety and health of the mother-baby dyad rests on their shoulders. Any non-clinical care they get to do is icing on the cake. Doulas have no such worries impeding their care. Non-clinical care is their only focus.Therefore, care providers are able to focus solely on their number one priority: the health and safety of mom and her baby.

I know that the above benefits are really more indirectly beneficial to the care provider. However, when there is benefit to the birthing woman, there is benefit to her care provider as well. The patient load of most OB’s is such that it can be extremely difficult for them to individualize care. After all, the care provider has as little time, per appointment, to get to know their patient as the patient has to get to know them.

Therefore, if there is any way for a doula to help build bridges, encourage their client to ask good questions, and utilize whatever time they have with their care provider, it enables and empowers the care provider to do what they want to do most: Provide evidence-based, individualized, humane care to their patients. This results in good feedback for them, and encourages them to be more open to the next client asking questions or wanting something different than the basic standard of care.

In short, the presence of a doula can mean heightened communication, empowerment, and a positive experience for everyone on the birth team, not just the mother.

*I understand that many women only have very limited, or no choice, when it comes to their care provider, due to geography, local/state laws, financial constraints, or other factors. Still – they ultimately still have chosen their care provider, rather than birthing unassisted at home. Therefore, they are placing some modicum of trust in that care provider. I appreciate feedback on this.*

Care providers: How often do you work with doulas? What do you appreciate most about good doulas? What tips might you offer to doulas who are still learning, or who need to understand your perspective better? What ideas do you have to foster better relationships between clinical and non-clinical professionals?

Thanks for reading!

Grace & Peace,
Tiffany

Picking Your Care Provider – Interview Questions

Thursday, July 28th, 2011

Being an active participant in your pregnancy and birth journey begins with choosing your provider. You can begin the search for the right provider fit prior to becoming pregnant, in early pregnancy or anytime before your baby is born. So much of how your pregnancy and birth unfold are directly related to your care provider so this is really a key element. Every provider is not the right fit for every mother and vice verse. If you already have an established provider relationship, these questions can be used as a re-interview tool.

When asking these questions, take care to really listen to the answers. If a provider will not meet with you prior to you becoming a patient, that can be a red flag.

______________________________________________________________________

Begin by expressing your overall idea of what your best pregnancy, labor and birth looks like to provider.

  • What are your core beliefs, training, experience surrounding pregnancy and birth?
  • Why did you choose this line of work?
  • What sets you apart from other maternity providers?
  • How can you help me attain my vision for pregnancy, labor and birth?
  • If I have a question, will you answer over the phone, by email or other avenue outside of prenatal appointments?
  • How much time will you spend with me during each appointment?
  • What routine tests are utilized during pregnancy? What if I decline these tests?
  • What is the average birth experience of first time mothers in your practice?
  • How do you approach the due date? What do you consider full term and when would I be considered overdue?
  • What are your patient intervention rates? (IV, AROM, continuous monitoring, episiotomy, etc.) Cesarean rate? VBAC rate? Induction rate? What induction methods are used? When are forceps/vacuum used? These numbers are tracked.
  • What positions are you comfortable catching in? Birth stool? Hand/Knees? Squatting? Standing? Water? How often do patients deliver in positions other than reclined or McRoberts positions?
  • How do you feel about me having a birth plan?
  • What if I hire a doula? Do you have an interest in who I work with or restrictions? If yes, why?
  • Do you have an opinion on the type of childbirth or breastfeeding class I take? If so, what and why?
  • Are you part of on call rotation or do you attend your own  overall? Will the back-up or on-call CP honor the requests we have agreed on?
  • Are there any protocols that are non-negotiable? If you cannot refuse – you are not consenting.
  • What if I choose to decline a recommended procedure or intervention in labor or post birth, how will that be viewed?
  • When will I see you during labor?
  • What postpartum care or support do you offer?
  • Will I be able to get questions answered or be seen before the 6 week postpartum visit?

Points to ponder afterward:

  • Did you feel immediately comfortable and respected at the interview? If already with a CP, do you feel comfortable, respected and heard at each appointment?
  • Were there red flags or white flags?
  • Was or is care provider willing to answer questions in detail without being annoyed?
  • Is choosing your care provider based on your insurance or lack of insurance?
  • What are you willing to do in order to have the birth you really desire? Birth location?
  • How much responsibility are you willing to take for the health care decisions for you and your baby?

What’s in the job?

Wednesday, July 6th, 2011

 

 

 

 

I wonder if most of us really know what the scopes of practice are for the providers we may choose  for pregnancy, birth, postpartum, and for the baby.  Keep reading to see if you really know what the jobs encompass.

As you go through the list I would like you to think about the language used, descriptors, and purpose of each type of provider. When we are approaching health care decisions especially who will care for us from pregnancy through birth, postpartum and for our babies, we need to make sure we are choosing the appropriate care for our individual needs and situation.

If anything strikes you or you would like me to add any provider types, please leave me a comment!

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OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (OB/GYN)

Obstetrics and gynecology is a discipline dedicated to the broad, integrated medical and surgical care of women’s health throughout their lifespan. The combined discipline of obstetrics and gynecology requires extensive study and understanding of reproductive physiology, including the physiologic, social, cultural, environmental and genetic factors that influence disease in women. This study and understanding of the reproductive physiology of women gives obstetricians and gynecologists a unique perspective in addressing gender-specific health care issues.

Preventive counseling and health education are essential and integral parts of the practice of obstetricians and gynecologists as they advance the individual and community-based health of women of all ages.

Obstetricians and gynecologists may choose a scope of practice ranging from primary ambulatory health care to concentration in a focused area of specialization.   – from ACOG

Certified Nurse-Midwife

Midwifery as practiced by Certified Nurse-Midwives (CNMs) and Certified Midwives (CMs) encompasses primary care for women across the lifespan from adolescence beyond menopause, with a special emphasis on pregnancy, childbirth, and gynecologic and reproductive health. Midwives perform comprehensive physical exams, prescribe medications including contraceptive methods, order laboratory and other diagnostic tests, and provide health and wellness education and counseling. The scope of practice for CNMs and CMs also includes treatment of male partners for sexually transmitted infections, and care of the normal newborn during the first 28 days of life. -from ACNM

Certified Professional Midwife

Based on the MANA Core Competencies, the guiding principles of the practice of CPMs are to work with women to promote a healthy pregnancy, and provide education to help her make informed decisions about her own care. In partnership with their clients they carefully monitor the progress of the pregnancy, labor, birth, and postpartum period and recommend appropriate management if complications arise, collaborating with other health care providers when necessary. The key elements of this education, monitoring, and decision making process are based onEvidenced-Based Practice and Informed Consent. – from MANA

Direct Entry Midwife (including Licensed Midwife)

  • Not required to be nurses.
  • Multiple routes of education (apprenticeship, workshops, formal classes or programs, etc., usually a combination).
  • May or may not have a college degree.
  • May or may not be certified by a state or national organization.
  • Legal status varies according to state.
  • Licensed or regulated in 21 states.
  • In most states licensed midwives are not required to have any practice agreement with a doctor.
  • Educational background requirements and licensing requirements vary by state.
  • By and large maintain autonomous practices outside of institutions.
  • Train and practice most often in home or out-of-hospital birth center settings.

To learn more detail about all types of midwives go to Citizens For Midwifery

Nurse Practitioner

Nurse practitioners (NPs) are registered nurses who are prepared, through advanced education and clinical training, to provide a wide range of preventive and acute health care services to individuals of all ages. Today, NPs complete graduate-level education preparation that leads to a master’s degree. NPs take health histories and provide complete physical examinations; diagnose and treat many common acute and chronic problems; interpret laboratory results and X-rays; prescribe and manage medications and other therapies; provide health teaching and supportive counseling with an emphasis on prevention of illness and health maintenance; and refer patients to other health professionals as needed.

NPs are authorized to practice across the nation and have prescriptive privileges, of varying degrees, in 49 states. Nurse practitioners perform services as authorized by a state’s nurse practice act.  These nurse practice acts vary state-to-state, with some states having independent practice for NPs (not requiring any physician involvement), some with collaborative agreement required with a physician. -from ACNP

Family Practitioner

AAFP defines a family physician as, “a physician who is educated and trained in family medicine–a broadly encompassing medical specialty.”

Family physicians possess unique attitudes, skills, and knowledge which qualify them to provide continuing and comprehensive medical care, health maintenance and preventive services to each member of the family regardless of sex, age, or type of problem, be it biological, behavioral, or social. These specialists, because of their background and interactions with the family, are best qualified to serve as each patient’s advocate in all health-related matters, including the appropriate use of consultants, health services, and community resources. – from AAFP

Labor Doula

The labor doula assists the woman and her family before, during, and after birth by providing emotional, physical, and informational support. It is not within the labor doula’s scope of practice to offer medical advice or perform any medical or clinical procedure.

During pregnancy, the labor doula’s role is to assist families in preparing a birth plan, to provide information about birth options and resources, and to provide emotional support.

During labor and birth, the labor doula facilitates communication between the family and the caregivers. She supports the mother and her partner with the use of physical, emotional, and informational support.

During the postpartum period, the doula assists the mother in talking through her birth experience, answering questions about newborn care and breastfeeding within our scope of practice, and referring the family to appropriate resources as needed. – from CAPPA

Postpartum Doula

The postpartum doula provides informational and educational information to the family. Medical advice is not given; referrals to appropriate studies and published books are within the postpartum doula’s scope. The postpartum doula will determine ahead of time what duties she feels comfortable with performing for the postpartum family and she will share this information with the family prior to accepting a position with them.

CAPPA members do not perform clinical or medical care on mother or baby such as taking blood pressure or temperature, vaginal exams or postpartum clinical care. CAPPA standards and certification apply to emotional, physical and informational support only. CAPPA members who are also health care professionals may provide these services within the scope and standard of their professions but only after making it clear that they are not functioning as a labor doula, postpartum doula, or childbirth educator at the time of the care. For needs beyond the scope of the postpartum doula’s expertise, referrals are made to the appropriate resources.

CAPPA strongly recommends that members do not drive mother or baby unless there is a life-threatening emergency and an ambulance could not get to the family quick enough. – from CAPPA

Lactation Educator

Lactation educators fill an important function in educating and supporting families interested in learning about breastfeeding. This education may take place in the public, hospital, clinical or private setting. Lactation educators provide informational, emotional and practical support of breastfeeding. They may provide this service exclusively as breastfeeding educators, or may use their training to augment their support in other professions, in the cases of doulas, childbirth educators, nurses, dieticians, and postnatal or parenting educators. In addition to providing breastfeeding information, lactation educators offer encouragement, companionship, an experienced point of view, and foster confidence and a commitment to breastfeeding.

Breastfeeding education is not restricted to new families, but applies to the general public and medical staff as well. Due to the limited breastfeeding information given in standard medical and nursing training, and the rampant misinformation about breastfeeding that is so prevalent in our society, the breastfeeding educator serves as a resource for accurate, evidence-based information to the public and health care providers, as well as to childbearing families.

CAPPA does not issue Certified Lactation Consultant status, nor does the lactation educator program qualify a member to dispense medical advice, diagnose or prescribe medication. However, lactation educators provide a wealth of information about how and why to breastfeed; establishing a breastfeeding-friendly environment; basic breastfeeding anatomy and physiology; the normal process of lactation; deviations from normal; physical, emotional and sociological barriers to breastfeeding; overcoming challenges; and resources available (including medical referrals) for the breastfeeding family. They can also be a source of vital support, guidance and encouragement throughout the duration of breastfeeding. -from CAPPA

IBCLC (Lactation Consultant)

International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs) have demonstrated specialized knowledge and clinical expertise in breastfeeding and human lactation and are certified by the International Board of Lactation Consultant Examiners (IBLCE).

This Scope of Practice encompasses the activities for which IBCLCs are educated and in which they are authorized to engage. The aim of this Scope of Practice is to protect the public by ensuring that all IBCLCs provide safe, competent and evidence-based care. As this is an international credential, this Scope of Practice is applicable in any country or setting where IBCLCs practice.

IBCLCs have the duty to uphold the standards of the IBCLC profession by:
• working within the framework defined by the IBLCE Code of Ethics, the Clinical Competencies for IBCLC Practice, and the International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA) Standards of Practice for IBCLCs
• integrating knowledge and evidence when providing care for breastfeeding families from the disciplines defined in the IBLCE Exam Blueprint
• working within the legal framework of the respective geopolitical regions or settings
• maintaining knowledge and skills through regular continuing education

IBCLCs have the duty to protect, promote and support breastfeeding by:
• educating women, families, health professionals and the community about breastfeeding and human lactation
• facilitating the development of policies which protect, promote and support breastfeeding
• acting as an advocate for breastfeeding as the child-feeding norm
• providing holistic, evidence-based breastfeeding support and care, from preconception to weaning, for women and their families
• using principles of adult education when teaching clients, health care providers and others in the community
• complying with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolution -from IBCLE

Pediatrician

A pediatrician is a child’s physician who provides:

  • preventive health maintenance for healthy children.
  • medical care for children who are acutely or chronically ill.

Pediatricians manage the physical, mental, and emotional well-being of their patients, in every stage of development — in good health or in illness.

Generally, pediatricians focus on babies, children, adolescents, and young adults from birth to age 21 years to:

  • reduce infant and child mortality
  • control infectious disease
  • foster healthy lifestyles
  • ease the difficulties of children and adolescents with chronic conditions

Click here for more information about the Physicians and Staff at the University of Maryland Children’s Hospital.

Pediatricians diagnose and treat:

  • infections
  • injuries
  • genetic defects
  • malignancies
  • organic diseases and dysfunctions

But, pediatricians are concerned with more than physical well-being. They also are involved with the prevention, early detection, and management of other problems that affect children and adolescents, including:

  • behavioral difficulties
  • developmental disorders
  • functional problems
  • social stresses
  • depression or anxiety disorders

Pediatrics is a collaborative specialty — pediatricians work with other medical specialists and healthcare professionals to provide for the health and emotional needs of children. – from UMM (I could find no concise scope of practice definition on the AAP website but here is their Scope of Practice Issues in the Delivery of Pediatric Health Care)

Doctors of Chiropractic

Defining Chiropractic Scope

Since human function is neurologically integrated, Doctors of Chiropractic evaluate and facilitate biomechanical and neuro-biological function and integrity through the use of appropriate conservative, diagnostic and chiropractic care procedures.

Therefore, direct access chiropractic care is integral to everyone’s health care regimen.

Defining Chiropractic Practice

A. DIAGNOSTIC

Doctors of Chiropractic, as primary contact health care providers, employ the education, knowledge, diagnostic skill, and clinical judgment necessary to determine appropriate chiropractic care and management.

Doctors of Chiropractic have access to diagnostic procedures and /or referral resources as required.

B. CASE MANAGEMENT

Doctors of Chiropractic establish a doctor/patient relationship and utilize adjustive and other clinical procedures unique to the chiropractic discipline. Doctors of Chiropractic may also use other conservative patient care procedures, and, when appropriate, collaborate with and/or refer to other health care providers.

C. HEALTH PROMOTION

Doctors of Chiropractic advise and educate patients and communities in structural and spinal hygiene and healthful living practices.

-from ACC